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Two Cents, and Not a Penny More, on Love Wins.

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I have  mixed feelings about putting this post up, mostly because I don't think very much else needs to be said about Rob Bell's book Love Wins.  If you haven't seen Martin Bashir's interview with him on MSNBC, you need to.  It tells you everything you need to know about the book and Bell's approach to these issues:  He clearly has about six highly-crafted and exquisitely ambiguous things to say, and is doggedly determined to avoid---at all cost---giving straight answers to any questions about what he really believes.  Bashir calls him out on it, and it's a service to the church and the world that he does.

Several friends have already done a great job of reviewing the entire book.  Both Tim Challies's and Kevin DeYoung's reviews are helpful pieces of work.  So this isn't going to be a full review.  That said, I do think it might be useful to point out a couple of details that I haven't seen talked about much, and that Bell simply got flat wrong.  You know the old quip about lawyers?  "Always confident, sometimes right."  That's an almost perfect description of Bell in Love Wins; he writes with amazing confidence about certain facts (word meanings, Jewish backgrounds, historical issues), and yet if you just pick up a dictionary or google a quote, you realize that what he's saying is simply wrong.  Pointing these things out isn't just a matter of "picking on" Bell, either.  It's a matter of doing our best to make sure little errors don't become part of our atmosphere.  Otherwise,  before we know it we'll have people in our churches saying, as if everybody knows it already, that Luther was a universalist and that the Bible doesn't have a concept of "forever."  So in the interest of preventing that, here are just a handful of the things that Bell gets flat wrong in his book.

1)  Bell rests quite a lot of weight on his understanding of the Greek word-group that has its root in aion, which English translations of the Bible often translate as “eternal.”  Bell argues that aion actually has two meanings, one of which is “age,” as in a period of time, and the other of which is “a particular intensity of experience.”  The upshot of this, he says, is that when we see the word aion in the Bible, it doesn’t mean “forever,” as if eternity were talking about “a 365-day year followed by a 365-day year followed by another 365-day year.”  Instead, it’s referring to one of two things:  either a limited period of time or to “a particularly intense experience.” 

Now, Bell's right to say that the word does sometimes mean those things (or something like them, anyway):  aion does refer sometimes to “an age,” and John’s use of aionios in the phrase “eternal life” means a lot more than simply “life that never comes to an end.” (Though I don't think it's so much the intensity of the experience John's talking about, but rather the "life of the age to come."  It's objective, not subjective.)  Anyway, the real trouble is in Bell’s insistence that the word-group rooted in aion can only carry those senses, and therefore that it can't and doesn't carry the sense of “forever, never-ending.”  But in fact, words in that group do carry that sense in the New Testament, quite a lot in fact.  Consider these:

  • In 2 Cor 4:18, for example, aionios is specifically contrasted with the word proskairos, which means "temporary."  To speak in terms of the root, as Bell does, aion here means “permanent,” “eternal,” “never-ending," as opposed to temporary, passing, and ending.
  • In Matthew 1:33, the angel says that Jesus will reign on the throne of David “into the aions,” which he explains by saying that of his kingdom estai ouk telos, “there will be no end.” 
  • Same thing in Hebrews 1:8-12.  God’s throne is “into the aions of the aions;” in other words, it will not ekleipo, “end, cease, stop, go out of being.”
  • One more:  In Romans 16:26, God is referred to as the “aioniou God.”  What sense would that even make if the word can only mean what Bell says it means?  “God of a period of time?”  “A particularly intense God?”  No, what it means is what it means in many places in Greek literature—“the never-ending, never-to-be-otherwise, non-temporary, eternal God,” the same yesterday, today, and forever.

There are other examples we could mention, but that should be enough to make the point.  Aion and other aion-words don't just mean "a limited period of time" or "intensity of experience."  Some of them very well mean "forever," whether you understand that to mean something like time-without-end or without-time.  Either way, they refer to something that never ceases, never comes to an end.

2) Bell's mistake on the aion word-group has a direct bearing on how he interprets Jesus’ words in Matthew 25:46.  Here’s what he says about that passage:

The goats are sent, in the Greek language, to an aion of kolazoAion, as we know, has several meanings.  One is “age” or “period of time”; another refers to intensity of experience.  The word kolazo is a term from horticulture.  It refers to the pruning and trimming of the branches of a plant so it can flourish.

An aion of kolazo.  Depending on how you translate aion and kolazo, then, the phrase can mean “a period of pruning” or “ a time of trimming,” or an intense experience of correction.

In a good number of English translations of the Bible, the phrase “aion of kolazo” gets translated as “eternal punishment,” which many read to mean “punishment forever,” as in never going to end.

But “forever” is not really a category the biblical writers used. . . .  Jesus isn’t talking about forever as we think of forever.

Three quick points:  First, I’ll say it again:  yes “forever” is a category the biblical writers used.  They understood it as the opposite of “temporary” and “ending.”  Jesus’s kingdom is forever; God’s throne is forever; there is an age to come, and it will be an age without end.

Second, the text simply doesn't say that it's an aion of anything.  It doesn't use the noun aion, but rather the adjective aionios.  It's a kolazo that is aion-ish.  In fact, that kolazo is just as aion-ish as the "things which are unseen" in 2 Corinthians 4:18.  It's the same word, meaning the opposite of temporary.

Third, on kolazo itself, it’s simply a basic exegetical mistake to look at the etymology of a word and assume you can derive its meaning from that.  It may be true that the word originated in the horticultural world to mean “lopping off” or “pruning.” But the meaning of the word developed over time, as words tend to do.  Eventually, it came simply to carry the connotation of the fairly violent action involved in “cutting short” or “lopping off,” and hence came to mean “to punish, to chastise.”  Bell’s inclusion of the phrase “so it can flourish” certainly gets him where he wants to go in his conception of hell, but that idea simply doesn’t exist in the word kolazo itself, as it was normally used in Koine Greek.  It meant punishment.  Jesus is saying that the goats go to “non-temporary, non-ending, permanent chastisement,” just as the sheep go to “non-temporary, non-ending, permanent life.”

3) This isn't a biblical point, but it's worth noting how uncarefully Bell uses a particular quote from Martin Luther.  Obviously his aim is to make it appear that belief in a post-mortem second-chance for salvation is a respected position in Christian history---held by the one who ignited the Protestant Reformation, no less!  But like his treatment of aion and kolazo, Bell's use of the quote doesn't hold water.  In fact, it actually casts Luther in precisely the opposite position from where he actually stands.  Carl Trueman has commented pointedly on this mistake, but the gist is that when Luther considered a post-mortem “second-chance” for repentance and said, “Who would doubt God’s ability to do that?,” he was talking about precisely that—ability.  God could have done it that way.  It’s not logically impossible in the way that making 2+2=5 is logically impossible.  But the very next sentence of Luther’s letter, which Bell either ignores or is unfamiliar with, is “No one, however, can prove that he does do this,” by which he means that there is nothing in Scripture to lead us to think so.  In fact, in his published writings, Luther made his position on that issue clear beyond doubt.  In other words, to the question, “Is there a post-mortem second chance?” Luther’s answer is, No, neither Scripture nor reason gives us reason in the least to think so.  Bell, however, simply ignores (or, again, is unaware of) everything else Luther said on the issue, and leaves his question about ability hanging out there as if it were the only thing Luther ever said on the topic, as if Luther were using Bell’s own technique of asking a loaded question with an obvious didactic purpose.

Well, there's much else that could be said about the book, and others have ably said it.  I hope these few selected details, though, will serve as a warning to you about the level of exegetical, historical, and theological care you're going to find in it.  As a pastor, you should probably read the book and be ready to answer questions about it (it's selling at #3 on Amazon today, after all).  But don't go in thinking it's a serious scholarly work, or a tightly-reasoned theological argument.  Just open your Bible beside it, along with a basic lexicon and Google for quotes like the Luther one, and I think you'll find that it's a suprisingly easy book for you to answer.

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Thanks for summing up pretty much all the traffic about Love Wins. The Bashir interview was the most interesting thing about it to me. And then Paul Edwards' interview with Bashir was really great too.

Great article! - quick edit, though - you wrote Matthew 1:33, I think you intended to write Luke 1:33.

And Bell's treatment of Matt 25:46 lacks something to be desired - does he address the entire verse? He argues that "eternal punishment" would be better rendered "a period of pruning." But then how does he render the next part of the sentence (traditionally translated "the righteous will go to eternal life")? If he's applying his same rule, he has to make this "a period of life" or perhaps "an intense experience of vitality". At any rate, Bell's understanding of aionion makes that life decidedly non-eternal.

Nice post. Thanks for putting your "two cents" into this issue. Yes. Bell has his talking points and avoids questions like the plague.

As a side note, I am reading your "What is the Gospel" for a second time. Great book!!!

As for Mike Gantt's comment, he is apparently on a mission to speak universalism to the masses. He has posted similar stuff at my blog and at several blogs I frequent.

Over the past week, as the whole “Love Wins” controversy has been taking place, I’ve been a concerned about the biblical misinformation on BOTH sides of this issue.

On the liberal side of the discussion, I’m very disappointed about the trend to de-emphasize the biblical teaching of eternal suffering… both by those who teach universalism, Christian universalism/reconciliation, and annihilationism. Those who hold to these views battle with the tension between the numerous passages in Scripture which clearly teach an everlasting state of painful judgment (Ps 81:15; Isa 33:14; Dan 12:2; Mt 25:46; 2 Thess 1:8-9; Rev 14:10-11 to name a few) and the emotional conflict of knowing that a loving God requires people to suffer eternally as the judgment for sin. From John Stott to Rob Bell, evangelicals are embracing a more palatable picture of eternity for the unbeliever and minimizing the painful reality of sin’s devastating influence on mankind.

I’m grateful for those who still faithfully stand with the central truth of scripture: In loving grace and mercy, Jesus Christ came to seek and save those who lives are controlled by sin and stand before God eternally helpless and hopeless. That through my faith in the saving work of Jesus we have the same assurance of eternal life and I once was sentenced to eternal judgment (Mt 25:46). I agree with the previous comment that, an interesting observation is to be made from Matthew 25:26… if the eternal judgment is to be considered as a limited time or “age” as Rob Bell now teaches, how are we to assume that eternal life is anything more than a temporary period either?

That being said, the technical error that the orthodox conservatives are making is using the term “hell” rather than “suffering.” Scripturally speaking “Hell” is not eternal. (Please keep reading.) The conscious SUFFERING of the condemned IS eternal, but HELL is not. The Bible is clear that Hell (as we understand it today) is only a temporary place of judgment… a “holding tank” for those under God’s wrath. This may sound like theological hair-splitting, but Revelation 20:14 teaches us that at the Great White Throne judgment, hell as a emptied out before God and then HELL is thrown into the Lake of Fire. I’m concerned that if we, as biblical conservatives are going to prove our arguments, they must be done so with complete biblical accuracy. The state of everlasting judgment for the unbeliever WILL continue long after HELL itself has completed its purpose and has been disposed of.

Does this clarification really matter? I think it does… maybe not in the eternal destination of the lost or the process of being freed from condemnation… but, if we are to command the respect of those who misuse scripture for their desired ends, we must answer our critics with the complete and accurate use of Scripture. We must not duplicate their error with teachings that are less than accurate no matter how insignificant the error might seem to us.

Excellent points, Steve, thanks for the reminder.

If I might respectfully offer some slight clarification to this post: there is a difference in Greek between gehenna and hades. Gehenna refers to the lake of fire which is the place of eternal torment; while hades is simply the realm of the dead (equivalent to sheol in the Old Testament). It is death and hades that are thrown into the lake of fire, in other words, into gehenna, and that cease to exist per Revelation 20:14. Hell is not thrown into the lake of fire and never ceases to exist since hell IS the lake of fire.
--GHJ

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Steve-
You are erroneously equating Hades and Hell as the same thing. The Bible is NOT clear that they are. In fact, it seems to be quite clear that they are not. They are in Greek mythology, but not in the gospels, or in revelation. If you are attacking accuracy, this is not a very credible argument.
Thanks
Tony

Great article Greg. Great to see how the Lord is using you! I am a challies reader and laughed when your name came up for the 2nd time since reading his blog! Blessings to you.

I was excited to read your comments here, but had a hard time giving you the benefit of the doubt after your opening statements about the Bashir interview and it being a service to the church.

The Bashir interview is to me one of the best examples of the worst kind of exchanges that happens in idealogical/theological conversation. Bashir was clearly less interested in having a genuine conversation with Bell than he was in scoring points for his theological team.

I'm not a Bell supporter, so this isn't about that, but I am a lover of Christ who wishes our conversations would be marked by James admonition that: everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry...

From where I sit, Bashir was unlistening, too quick to speak, and bullying. He demanded simple answers to complex questions, and then wouldn't even let Bell answer. He had no intention of having a genuine conversation - it wasn't even good journalism. He didn't have to agree with Bell, but the way he conducted himself is inconsistent with the gospel that he assumed to defend.

And with the whole world watching. On the contrary, I believe he did a terrible disservice to the church.

I'm grieved that you applaud him here and it makes it hard for me to read the rest of what you wrote because I'm tempted to question your credibility and think that your bias has compromised your judgment.

Please reconsider the praise you give him here, and may the Lord help us all to be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry... beginning with me!

Jason, regardless of Mr. Bashir's demeanor as he probed, would you agree that Bell was quite evasive in his responses?

I think that in spite of your disappointment, you'll be blessed if you go ahead and read the article.

I think that Bashir was asking questions intended to corner Bell, demanding simplistic black and white answers to questions that Bell is trying to add depth and complexity too.

It would be like someone asking you on national television if you as a human are absolutely evil. The answer is yes... kind of... but no, too.... Because it's important to acknowledge our depravity, but to also honor the truth that we are made in the image of God, and that beyond that God bestows loveliness upon us because of his love.

And to say that you are evil is too simplistic of an answer, anyway, isn't it? There is truth in it, but it isn't the whole of the truth.

Bashir's questions were designed to corner Bell and demand answers that betrayed the very heart of what Bell is trying to do - which is to add complexity and reassess. Now, regardless of whether you feel Bell is misguided in his conclusions, it's clear that Bashir had an agenda to invalidate him and control the terms of the conversation. A true conversation guided by the virtues of the gospel would look very different from what happened in the Bashir interview.

Until the Christian community, and more importantly the individual human hearts that make up this community, can overcome this kind of single-mindedness, in my opinion we will have little to say to each other (and less to be heard :-(

So no, I don't think he was being evasive as much as he was trying to resist Bashir's determination to reduce the very concepts that Bell's book is trying to bring complexity to. Bashir clearly was less interested in being curious about why Bell would write the book that he did and seemed only to want to discredit him. As a host who invited Bell to be his guest, that was at the very least rude of Bashir. If I invited you to be my guest, I would not try to publicly humiliate you and corner you as your host. I would be curious, and then if I disagreed, I would share why - and I hope I would do so with humility. Bell was being attacked, he was not being evasive.

That seems obvious to me, and I don't even land theologically where Bell does.

Jason, did we go to school together?

Hi Jason-
I just want to know if I am reading this correctly. When you say
"Because it's important to acknowledge our depravity, but to also honor the truth that we are made in the image of God, and that beyond that God bestows loveliness upon us because of his love."
Are you saying that there is some good in everyone because they were made in the image of God and that everyone has "loveliness" because God loves them?

Thanks for clarifying
Tony

I agree with you Jason. Bashir's questions were designed specifically to destroy Bell and discredit him. It was horrible journalism and in my opinion no one should applaud dialogue that looks like this.

1) "Which of these is true...EITHER God is all powerful but He doesn't care about the people of Japanand therefore they're suffering OR He does care about the people of Japan but He is not all powerful, which one is it?"

Neither one of these is true so Bashir has forced Bell to pick from Bashir's opinions instead of allowing him to answer a question based on Bell's belief and theology.

2) He then goes on to ask Bell three times if the decisions we make now are irrelevant, to which Bell answers that they are terribly relevant but Bashir keeps asking the question and dismissing his answer.

3) Bashir then reads a critique of the book saying, "there are dozens of problems with Love Wins, the history is inaccurate and the use of scripture indefensible....THATS TRUE ISN'T IT?" He never gives us any way of researching this critique or the accusations he simply throws it out there as fact.

This is obviously Bashir's opinion and even after Bell says it is not true he repeats the quote and once again says that it is true.

Slanted, biased, bullying media that is being praised by christians? I think Bell is great at exposing christians who live in a house of cards and when he asks questions they spit venom at him so no cards get knocked out and their whole belief tumbles around them. Bell is asking questions and trying to start dialogue so the hurting masses can learn of the love of our infinite God. If you agree or disagree simply answer the questions rather than discredit everything the man says as lies. I listen to Bell and personally think his theology is very deep and wide. I think this book was more about questions than answers and about the immense love that is God and his mercy prevailing over our hard hearts.

Agreed. The Bashir interview was absolutely terrible. It speaks volumes about a person's capability for objectivity when one praises it.

I don't agree with Bell, but the way he, and his theologically liberal peers for that matter, conduct themselves is far more admirable and Christ-like than the angry self-righteousness of theologically conservative know-it-alls. Right as they may be, knowledge certainly puffs up.

Greg,

Please read the first 5 comments and take them to heart..

At the top of the page it says" Building Healthy Churches". Say What?

Just for the record, Matthew 25:46 does not speak of a kolazo of anything. Kolazo is the verb form. Matthew uses the noun, kolasis not the verb. So Bell is doubly wrong when he refers to "an aion of kolazo." Literally translated Bell's Greek would read "an age of I punish" which is grammatical gibberish.

Thanks for the review, Greg.

First: I have wondered for a long time about how people of free will, having in this life chosen God's grace through Christ, might still have the opportunity to reject life in the age to come. It seems, unless God
removes the option of free will (not a God-like action), that each of us may only reside "in life" for a period of time- that time which we willingly reside there. If this is the case, and I haven't heard any discussion about this anywhere, then it makes sense to me that Bell's interpretation of the "possible" meaning of "eternal hell" also would apply to the "possible" meaning of "eternal heaven".

Second: Does this discussion glorify God and the primary objective of His heart, that all who would hear, hear and know of His love and sacrifice on their behalf? Are we snipping and sniping at each other much to the enemy's delight, while a world suffers in any and all kinds of hell?

Congrats on having one of the top three links on a "Rob Bell aion kolazo" search! But the other two belong to the mysterious "reformed rebel," and the contents of his post are remarkably similar to yours. Are you in fact the same person, or who is plagiarizing who?

If you are the same, as seems most likely, then thanks again for getting your understanding of NT Greek into the conversation. It helps a lot. And thanks for your passion, too; there is nothing wrong with believing you're right and that it's important. Those who protest the vitriol in the Love Wins conversation are also right, however. We can disagree -- strongly -- but we ought to listen to each other. 1 John 4:6 -- "Those who know God listen to us." We need to give everyone who claims to speak in the name of Christ a fair hearing -- and we also need to examine their use of Scripture carefully. We should point out any mistakes in a spirit of love, and not contempt. I guess I mean it's fair to second-guess a person's understanding, but not his faith.

David, we are not in fact the same person, and the contents are remarkably similar, aren't they? You'll also notice that one of the two posts in question has a date 6 days earlier than the other.

We'll be checking into it. Thanks for the heads-up.

Greg

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Two things:

The meaning Rob suggested for aion is debatable but even if you take it away Rob's primary argument - salvation is possible after death - stands.

In fact, I didn't understand Rob to mean hell - the place - isn't forever but only that a person's sentence isn't forever.

Secondly, about Rob's Luther quote. It is a fact that Luther believed salvation was possible after death - he was a trained Catholic priest - and the quoted letter doesn't disagree with this. He was only arguing that faith was still required, even after death.

Rob argues that faith is possible after death. Luther argued that faith is required. The possibility of salvation after death was the common denominator in both discussions.

I wrote about Carl Trueman's article and quoted Luther's remarks about purgatory here.

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Allosteric modulation: PAMs and NAMs alpha 1 selective, 840/' Antidepressants ! 653 acting at that receptor as well as the specific molecular subunits that comprise that subtype, corresponding to the pharmacological actions shown in Figure 12-61C. 5HT occupancy of its 5HT1A receptor [url=http://promokodi.net/store/e5-ru/]e5[/url] DDC (DOPA decarboxylase), 266, 266/ themselves differently in a major depressive neurotransmission. Although each of the monoamines has a unique presynaptic transporter (SERT for serotonin, presynaptic D2 which may last several hours, followed in turn by drowsiness ("nodding"), mood swings, [url=http://promokodi.net/store/wildberries/]wildberries[/url] verbal fluency, impaired, in schizophrenia, 257 FIGURE 19-51 Association between depression and prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Erectile 526, 527/ suprachiasmatic nucleus to regulate circadian rhythms. Figures 16-10 and 16-11 show the Org 25501, 446 [url=http://promokodi.net/store/bonprix/]bonprix[/url] can morph a major depressive episode into an anxiety disorder (Figure 14-1) or one anxiety 253/ involved in sexual behavior. Specific dopamine projections will be discussed in much more arriving in the thalamus, so that only selected types of sensory input are relayed to the cortex. (A) In insomnia, this poststroke dementia, cognitive [url=http://promokodi.net/store/quelle/]quelle[/url] neurotransmission that are linked, in turn, to the therapeutic actions of various psychotropic in first-episode schizophrenia: D3 and 5-HT2C receptor polymorphisms separately final step in formation of the second (Figure 3-33). Theoretically, one targeted transcription factor (in red) might slow down the Davis M, Ressler K, Rothbaum BO and Richardson R. (2006) Effects of D-cycloserine on [url=http://promokodi.net/store/wildberries/]wildberries[/url] as SSRI side effect, 530 simple: namely, all effective antidepressants boost the synaptic action of one or more of the of the excitatory neurotransmitter in the ventral emotional processing circuitry can be assessed with neuroimaging, whether 475

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