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9Marks Explained : A Letter From Mark Dever

Book Review: Saving Eutychus, by Gary Millar and Phil Campbell

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If you are a preacher or an aspiring preacher, you should buy, read, and put this book into practice. Don’t take my word for it. D.A. Carson asserts, “Many books on preaching are published every year; this one is a ‘must.’” And Alistair Begg adds, “This book deserves to be included in the ‘must read’ category of preachers.” The strength of Saving Eutychus is the authors’ ability to make a persuasive appeal for expository preaching and then to practically show us how to do it.
 

Millar emphasizes two key elements in his definition of expository preaching: the text and the heart. True expository preaching is bringing the text of God’s Word to bear upon the hearts of people. Millar writes, “Expository preaching happens when the message of the text = the message of the sermon. Or perhaps better, expository preaching happens when the vibe of the passage = the vibe of the sermon” (31). Every text possesses a message and an ethos. The preacher’s task is to craft and communicate his sermon so that the main point and ethos of the text is main point and ethos of the sermon.

Expository preaching is not simply the relaying of knowledge or a download of information. The goal is that we both understand and feel the message of the text. So, authentic expository preaching includes the mind and the heart, the intellect and the affections. As you read the authors' definition of preaching, you might want to stand up and preach. I did.

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Book Review: Reading for Preaching, by Cornelius Plantinga, Jr.

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At this point in my life I write a lot and preach a little. My job involves reviewing, editing, and writing books, so you could say I’m a professional reader, but an amateur preacher.
 

That’s why I’m a little skeptical of my own bias toward a book like Cornelius Plantinga’s Reading for Preaching: The Preacher in Conversation with Storytellers, Biographers, Poets, and Journalists. “Of course!” says the writer. “Preachers should read more! And more widely!” But should they really?

Yes, says Plantinga, president emeritus of Calvin Theological Seminary. Why? To sum up the book with a phrase borrowed from it, a preacher should be the kind of person on whom nothing is lost, and reading widely helps (72).

“Helps” reflects the book’s refreshing modesty. Plantinga wants preachers to read widely—that is, outside the fields of Bible and theology—for a number of reasons: to find illustrations, yes, but also to tune their ears to the power of well-chosen words, and to meet wisdom in street clothes (chs. 2-6). Yet his recommended yoke is light: one novel, one biography, and a fifth of a book of poetry each year, with a weekly visit to the Arts & Letters Daily website thrown in (42).

In Chapter 3, “Tuning the Preacher’s Ear,” Plantinga covers “clarity and her best children” and four aspects of diction: rhetorical pitch, narrative movement, economy, and evocativeness. In his analysis of one model sermon’s rhetorical pitch, Plantinga commends a register that “is neither tuxedo formal nor tank top casual. We might call it ‘upscale colloquial’ or ‘business casual,’ and add that it will engage a great many listeners.” This pitch “makes the sermon formal enough to be serious and casual enough to be comfortable to wear” (49).

This is sound advice elegantly stated—which I could say of just about the whole book. But my point in drawing attention to rhetorical pitch is that this is an issue more preachers could afford to critically consider. The same goes for the other stylistic tools Plantinga probes. Words are the preacher’s raw material, and most preachers could use help learning how to mine their potential.

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Book Review: The Pastor’s Family, by Brian and Cara Croft

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Brian and Cara Croft co-wrote The Pastor’s Family: Shepherding Your Family through the Challenges of Pastoral Ministry. Brian has been the senior pastor of Auburndale Baptist Church in Louisville, Kentucky since 2003. He is also the founder of Practical Shepherding, a website dedicated to being “a Gospel-driven resource center for pastors and church leaders to equip them in the practical matters of pastoral ministry,” and the author of numerous books in the “Ministering the Master’s Way” series. Brian and Cara have four children. Cara serves alongside Brian by teaching and discipling the women of Auburndale.

The book is divided into three parts that encourage pastors and church leaders to faithfully serve the church while faithfully serving their families. Brian and Cara’s twenty years of ministry qualify them to address balancing the “demands of the ministry with the demands of being a father and husband” and wife and mother (13).

In part one, Brian analyzes problems and offers practical solutions for the pressures of pastoral ministry that might lead to family neglect. Church and home are a constant swirl of expectations and scheduling demands. Some of these expectations and demands expose fears (and weaknesses) that tempt a pastor to neglect to shepherd at home.

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Rediscovering Jesus’ Hymnbook

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How interested would you be if archaeologists unearthed a hymnbook embossed with the name, “Jesus of Nazareth?” Overlooking the anachronism for a moment, wouldn’t “Jesus’ hymnbook” be immediately republished and rocket to the best-seller lists? Wouldn’t those songs find instantaneous popularity in worship services across the globe?

We have that hymnbook. We do know what songs Jesus sang: he sang the psalms.

So a question arises: if you’d be excited about singing the hymns from our fictional archaeological find, then why aren’t you more excited about singing the psalms? Two events in my life significantly nudged me into answering that question.

The first event was a dumbfounded stare in the seminary bookstore when I was a first year M.Div. student. I stood looking at the required reading for New Testament Greek and saw the Trinity Psalter as a required purchase. Why was I being asked to purchase an Old Testament book in English for a New Testament Greek course? It turns out my professor had a habit of beginning each class by requiring his students to sing a psalm together. So I become a psalm singer by requisite.

The second event happened in the Peruvian mountains. I led a group of students on a short-term mission trip. Our task was to dig a ditch around a church under construction. Our Peruvian host was a minister in the Peruvian Presbyterian Church and they mainly sang psalms.

We had a long conversation about why this was their practice, but one reason stood out to me. He was fighting heresy in the churches he pastored. False teaching slipped into his churches through folk songs adjusted for worship. Psalm singing was his attempt to guard his people from heresy sung to a familiar tune. Psalms served that growing community of churches as a biblical bulwark against encroaching syncretism. Reflecting on that conversation, I realized that I had become a psalm singer through missions.

You don’t have to be a seminary student or a missionary to Peru to step into the world of psalm singing. You only need to do two things. First, consider the benefits that God attaches to worship in psalm. Second, decide practically how you will begin singing the psalms.

SIX BENEFITS OF PSALM SINGING

Here then are six benefits of congregational psalm singing.

1. When you sing psalms you literally sing the Bible.

Good hymns are theologically deep, artistically sound, and biblical in content, but they are not the actual words of Scripture. However, when we sing the psalms we are actually singing the Bible. The poetic structure, themes, and content of the psalms are the inspired Word of God for his church in every age.

2. When you sing the psalms you interact with a wealth of theology.

Martin Luther said of the Psalter, “It might well be entitled a Little Bible, wherein everything contained in the entire Bible is beautifully and briefly comprehended.” The 150 psalms cover the waterfront of theology. Psalm singing is theological study.

3. When you sing the psalms you are memorizing Scripture.

An important part of Christian maturity is the ability to recall passages of Scripture at need. Educational circles have long recognized how music aids memorization. This is no accident; it reflects the providential hand of our Creator God. He wants you to memorize his Word and has provided a mnemonic for easy memory—the Psalter as Scripture that was, and should be, set to music.

4. When you sing the psalms you guard against heresy.

Andrew Fletcher said, “Let me write a country’s songs, and I care not who writes its laws.” He was onto something. Songs drive information deep into our hearts. However, this power can be used for ill means. As long as the church has existed, songs have been used to inculcate heresy. Psalms are counter-heresy measures.

5. When you sing the psalms you sing with the full range of human emotion.

Godly anger, heart-wrenching sorrow, dark depression, effulgent joy, honest questioning, and exuberant praise are just a sampling of the emotional range covered by the psalms. Most churches sense the burden of teaching their people how to think. Very few consider their responsibility to teach their people how to feel. The psalms serve as the tutors of our affections.

6. When you sing the psalms you praise the person and work of Jesus Christ.

One of the most misinformed statements a Christian can make against psalm singing is, “I don't sing psalms because they aren't about Jesus.” When the earliest Christians wanted to sing about Jesus’ atoning death and glorious resurrection they turned to the psalms. A little stroll through the cross-references in the New Testament should be enough to convince even the staunchest critic that to sing the psalms is to sing of the person and work of Christ.

FOUR STEPS TO BEGIN SINGING PSALMS

If these benefits have piqued your interest, then these four steps should help you begin singing the psalms.

1. Find a Psalter you can sing.

Notice I didn’t simply say, “Find a Psalter.” The best Psalter is the one you actually sing. Different Psalters are suited to different musical abilities. Some set each psalm to a particular tune while others simply provide the suggested meter, allowing you to choose the tune.

Here are a few options:

  • The Trinity Psalter (Crown and Covenant) provides a single suggested tune for each psalm and breaks long psalms up into suggested portions.
  • The Book of Psalms for Singing or The Book of Psalms for Worship (Crown and Covenant) also suggests tunes for each psalm but provides multiple settings and smaller portions for each psalm taken from different historic Psalters.
  • The psalter I use most is The Psalms of David in Metre (Trinitarian Bible Society) developed from the 1650 Scottish Psalter. It provides each psalm in the common meter. While lacking in musical sophistication, this version is immediately singable if you know a handful of common meter tunes like “Crimond” or “Amazing Grace.”

2. Know your Bible.

Devote special study to the background of the psalms. Devote some public teaching and preaching to the psalms. Purchase a Bible with cross-references and note where psalms are quoted in the New Testament.

Let me also add the suggestion that you read a good book on redemptive history, like Vaughn Roberts’ God’s Big Picture or T.D. Alexander’s From Eden to the New Jerusalem. A good foundation in the Bible’s overarching plan of redemption and how it culminates in Jesus Christ is essential to singing the psalms well.

3. To sing the psalms well you must understand how the psalms direct us to the person and work of Jesus Christ.

Many psalms are directly fulfilled in the life and ministry of Jesus. The authors of the New Testament regularly draw on the psalms to describe what was accomplished on the cross. The beauty of the psalms is magnified as they are placed in the setting of God's redemptive work in Jesus Christ.

4. The fourth thing you and your congregation will need is the willingness to try something new.

Psalm singing can be difficult for someone who has never been exposed to it. Psalm singing can be downright alien for someone who has only known modern praise songs. But the potential benefits are immense. It is not easy work but it is good work. It is not quick work but it provides long-term, lasting joys. And the question really is, “Why wouldn’t you want to sing the psalms?”

Joe Holland is the pastor of Christ Covenant Presbyterian Church in Culpeper, Virginia. 

Five Qualities of a Congregational Song

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Christians are a singing people.

Muslims don’t gather to sing. Neither do Hindus, Buddhists, or Rastafarians. Christians do. Also, while not everyone preaches, or leads in prayer, or publicly reads Scripture, we all sing.[1]

But what can we say about the nature of a corporate Christian song? What should it be like? Can we sing any kind of song when gathered together?

WHAT A CONGREGATIONAL SONG SHOULD BE

Whether our corporate worship is subject to the regulative principle or simply the principle of conscience, the exercise of singing ought to be seriously considered in light of Scripture. And Psalm 96 offers some crucial perspectives regarding the nature of a right song and its effects. Originally written for the covenant people of God for the entry of the ark of the covenant into Jerusalem (see 1 Chr. 16), this Psalm offers us much regarding the practice of singing today.

A Congregational Song Should Focus on God

God is at the center of a Christian song. When God calls his people to sing, it is a qualified type of song. In Psalm 96:1, God says, “Sing to the Lord.”

When the church is gathered together in the name of God, the glory of God is the aim of our melody making. We are to sing to him, about him, and for him. We don’t sing merely as the world sings of created things, our song is elevated to the Uncreated One. The songs of the church proclaim the character, attributes, and ways of the God of our salvation.

For those who choose songs for corporate worship, this is a task to be carried out with sobriety. Mark Dever and Paul Alexander give this advice to pastors: “As the main teaching pastor, it is your responsibility to shepherd the congregation into the green pastures of God-centered, gospel-centered songs, and away from the arid plains of theological vacuity, meditations on human experience, and emotional frenzy.”[2] If our songs are never set above vacuity, human experience, and emotions, we have fallen short of our goal. God must be the center of our worship; therefore God must be the center of our songs.

A Congregational Song Should Be Biblical

The songs of the church ought to be built on, shaped by, and saturated with the word of God. Singing is a unique way to let the word of Christ dwell richly in us (Col. 3:16).

In Psalm 96:2, we see that we are to bless his name. Apart from God’s revelation, we would not know his name, or how to bless his name. Our singing and the whole of our worship must be biblically informed in order to carry out these commands. The songs of the church should be intentionally biblical.

We might think of singing as a form of exposition that uses poetry to teach the word of God. When Isaac Watts published Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs, this was his intention. His goal was not to sing Scripture line by line, but to create poetic and emotive renditions of Scripture that allow a church to sing the truths of Scripture.

Songs are sermons. They don’t work like homiletical exegesis, but they articulate, exegete, and pronounce biblical truths. Our hymns teach and shape the way people view God, man, Christ, and how we are to live in light of the gospel.

One way to ensure our singing is biblical is to comb through our songs to see if we cover the breadth of themes presented throughout the canon. Our songs should be held up to the light of God’s word to ensure we are singing the glories of its truth.

A Congregational Song Should Point to the Gospel

The contours of the gospel should shape our hymnal. We should “tell of his salvation” (v. 2), so that the gospel rings forth as the theme of our songs. If we are convinced of the primacy of gospel-centered ministry, we should surely practice gospel-centered singing. The songs of our churches must be fluent in the gospel.

One approach toward gospel-centered singing is to build on the framework of God, man, Christ, response.

  • We sing to God as the holy creator of all things, who is worthy of worship.
  • We sing of man and our sinful nature, our alienation from God, and our need of forgiveness.
  • We sing of Christ who is fully God and fully man, who lived a sinless life and died on the cross to bear the wrath of God.
  • We sing a response. In these songs of consecration and repentance, faith and praise, we joyfully respond to the good news of Jesus.

A Congregational Song Should Be Congregational

The preface to this Psalm says it is to be sung by both Asaph and his sons (1 Chr. 16:7). Christian singing is congregational at its core.

The song of redemption is not meant for one, but for many. In the torrent of individualism and self-help, the people of God don’t sing as a collection of individuals, but as one people united to Christ. Christian singing is not meant to highlight the talented few, but to include the voice of the many. Congregational participation protects the gathering from pageantry and pomp, and provides an environment for an exultant, grace-infused response to the revelation of God.

This choir of the redeemed lift a collective voice of praise as a testimony that we have been reconciled to God and to one another. Singing together in worship is a mark of unity within a church. The song of the redeemed is to be sung by young and old, rich and poor, strong and weak. Verse 7 reminds us that families of peoples will ascribe praise to God: peoples from every tribe, tongue, and nation on the earth.

A Congregational Song Should be Evangelistic

While worship is theocentric, it is also declarative. Our singing is aimed at God, but it also rings in the ear of our neighbor. God-centered worship is proclamation. As we sing of the glory of God we understand that all have not seen his glory. As we sing of the goodness of the gospel, we realize that it is not good news to all.

Spurgeon called this Psalm the “Missionary Psalm,” and for good reason. In verses 10 to 13, we see that God-centered singing intrinsically works as a declaration to the lost. God-centeredness and evangelism are not two competing targets but one inside of the other. The worship of God is the aim of evangelism.

In the same breath, we sing of the love and wrath of God. In the same melodies, we declare his holiness and the grave effect of sin. Christ is the king who will come to judge the world in his righteousness and the peoples in his faithfulness. We say among the nations “The Lord reigns!” in the hope that men and women will repent of sin and trust in Christ.

A HOLY PRACTICE

The church has been given a song to sing, and Christ is its author, its substance, and its aim.

A church’s songs are not a mere preamble to the sermon. Singing is not filler time to warm up a congregation. Singing is a holy practice. We sing because God has commanded us, and our songs should fill our hearts with delight.

Matt Boswell is pastor of ministries and worship at Providence Church in Frisco, Texas.

[1] Thanks to Collin Hansen for articulating this idea in a conversation.

[2] Mark Dever and Paul Alexander, The Deliberate Church: Building Your Ministry on the Gospel (Wheaton: Crossway, 2005), 85.

Doing Biblical Theology Well: An Interview with Michael Lawrence

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It appears to be biblical theology month here at 9Marks, with 9Marks at Southern starting February 28 and Logos giveaway of an eBook version of Biblical Theology in the Life of the Church. In that spirit, we asked Michael Lawrence, senior pastor of Hinson Baptist Church in Portland, Oregon, a few questions about biblical theology.

9M: Why is it important for Christians to understand biblical theology?

ML: Whether they realize it or not, Christians are doing biblical theology all the time. They are relating the Old Testament to the New Testament, Israel to Jesus and the church, the law to the gospel. That’s the work of biblical theology.

So if you're going to be doing something anyway, if it’s inescapable every time you pick up your Bible, then I think you should know what you’re doing. If you don’t know what you’re doing, then it’s not that you won't do biblical theology. It’s simply that you’ll do it badly.

The Scriptures are the power of God for salvation. Therefore, we don’t want to misinterpret or misapply them. Biblical theology is essential if we are to faithfully do both. 

9M: Jim Hamilton defines biblical theology as learning to read the Bible like the apostles did. What do you think of that definition?

ML: I like Jim’s definition a lot, because I think biblical theology is essentially a reading strategy. For over two centuries now, the academic community has taught us to read the Bible in increasingly atomized parts, like pearls on a string. Certainly paying attention to the distinct voice of John or Jeremiah has had many benefits. It has taught us to pay attention to context, and has kept us from flattening the Bible out into a simplistic univocal message.

But there’s no doubt that this strategy, particularly in the hands of skeptical unbelief, has also done a lot of damage. Not least it has obscured the single voice of God, speaking through the multiplicity of human voices and yet telling a single story of judgment and redemption. In other words, in rediscovering the individual trees of the Bible in their unique beauty we’ve lost the biblical forest in its majestic grandeur.

When we talk about biblical theology as the reading strategy of the apostles, we’re talking about a perspective on the canon that the apostles learned from Jesus himself (Luke 24:27). But it’s not just their reading strategy for the Old Testament; it was their writing strategy for the New Testament as well. Again and again, they wrote to show that what happened in and through Jesus was the fulfillment of what had already been written (e.g., Matt. 1:22, 2:15; John 12:38; Acts 1:16). But it wasn’t just Jesus that the OT pointed forward to. They also wrote about the identity and nature of the church in the same way (e.g., Acts 2:16, 1 Cor. 10:11ff., Heb. 12:18-24).

So biblical theology is not just an apostolic reading strategy for the Old Testament, it’s an apostolic reading strategy for the whole Bible. And we read it that way, not only because the apostles told us to read it that way, but because it’s the way the Holy Spirit inspired it from first to last.

9M: What are you planning to talk about at the upcoming 9Marks at Southern conference on biblical theology?

ML: What I’m hoping to speak on is the way in which biblical theology is necessary for the formation of Christian identity. There are several favorite and well-known phrases from the New Testament that we use to describe ourselves: we’re aliens and strangers, sons and daughters, the bride of Christ. I want to show that we can’t understand any of those crucial identity markers without biblical theology, and that with biblical theology they become profoundly rich in ways beyond what we typically attach to them.

That’s my goal anyway. In the process, I hope to show just how useful biblical theology is to our work of counseling and discipling, which is the ministry context in which we typically lean most heavily on those identity images.

Interested in reading Michael’s book? Check out our bookstore

Biblical Theology: Ballast for Preaching (Part 3 of 3)

Note: This is the third article in a three part series. Click the following for part 1 and part 2.

My first exposure to biblical theology was back in 1984 as a seminary student. One of my professors assigned us Biblical Theology by Gerhardus Vos. I found it heavy sledding, but formative all the same. Later I dove into Jonathan Edwards, The History of Redemption.

Then, as the years piled on, I encountered Graeme Goldsworthy’s Gospel and Kingdom, as well as an assortment of other works in the same discipline. In 2004 I made my own attempt at bringing biblical theology down to a child’s level with The Big Picture Story Bible. Suffice it to say, I’ve been intrigued with the ballast biblical theology can provide to pastoral ministry for over 30 years now.

Yet a fundamental shift is underway regarding how the content and concepts of biblical theology are delivered to those looking to grow in preaching and teaching. Gone are the days when pastors simply picked up a book as the only way of making progress. Rather, people are becoming increasingly convinced that the kind of training they need requires something that not only informs them, but helps them work on their own work. And for that, the world is increasingly turning to online platforms for help.

To this end, the Charles Simeon Trust (which I serve as the Chairman) has created an interactive online course called Preaching and Biblical Theology. And with fifteen HD video lectures delivered by the likes of Greg Beale, Don Carson, Graeme Goldsworthy, Vaughn Roberts, Michael Lawrence, and others, we think it is one of the better things going! It combines the best of classroom instruction with hands-on interaction and assignments.

Already, people across the country are taking it as individuals or in groups. And the feedback we are getting back is encouraging. It is accomplishing the goal of putting some ballast back into pastoral work. Some are even taking it for seminary credit.

There are not many other comprehensive tools for receiving this level of training on preaching and biblical theology. So, if you want a free sample of what an online lecture is like, check out this talk  by Greg Beale. For more information you can visit simeoncourse.org or email info@simeontrust.org.

In these three posts, we have explored how biblical theology is meant to put ballast into your preaching. The tools of plot, theme, typology and analogy have been introduced, and an online course has been made available. The only thing that remains is for us to commit to taking in the ballast that our preaching so desperately needs.

David Helm is one of the pastors of Holy Trinity Church in Chicago, Chairman of the Charles Simeon Trust, and the author of Expositional Preaching: How We Speak God’s Word Today (forthcoming from Crossway, April 2014). Joel Miles is the Director of Training at the Charles Simeon Trust and a pastoral resident at Holy Trinity Church.

Book Review: Antinomianism, by Mark Jones

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Would you recognize antinomian theology if you heard it? How about if you preached it? Almost anyone who moves in Reformed Christian circles, whether traditional or young and restless, knows that antinomianism is supposed to be a bad thing. Yet judging by the little attention paid to it, many don’t seem to view it as a major threat.

I suspect that most of us would consider legalism a much weightier accusation than antinomianism. Indeed, we might even wear the charge of antinomianism as a badge of honor. After all, didn’t people hurl this same accusation at the apostle Paul (Rom. 3:8; 6:1)?

It seems that for many contemporary pastors, antinomianism is like smallpox: extremely dangerous, but thankfully rare in our day. After all, how many people really teach that Christians don’t have to obey Jesus?

In his book Antinomianism: Reformed Theology’s Unwelcome Guest?, Mark Jones seeks to persuade you that antinomianism is more prevalent than you think. As Reformed theology’s unwelcome guest, it springs up like tares wherever sovereign grace is rediscovered and proclaimed. And according to Jones, the contemporary Reformed resurgence is no exception to this pattern. As a historical theologian, Jones wants you to recognize antinomianism when you hear it—whether in podcasts, blog posts, or in your own sermons. By the time you’re done, you may realize that you’re more antinomian than you think.

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Should Your Second Hire Be a Music Pastor?

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When a solo pastor recognizes the need for an additional hire it’s both an exciting and fearful proposition. Exciting because your church has grown to the place where you can afford another person to serve the congregation. Fearful because you can only hire one.

Consider the options. Last year Ryan Townsend suggested your second hire might be an administrative pastor. There’s much wisdom in that and Ryan makes a good case for it. Some would recommend a pastor-evangelist as your second hire. After all, you’re adding another salary so you’ll need more people in the church to support the additional financial burden. Others might make the case for a children’s pastor, especially when the demographic of your church is largely young families. Still others would opt for a youth or family pastor, for similar reasons. 

But what about a music pastor? Many people today choose churches based on the music as much as the preaching. Wouldn’t it be wise to have someone who can effectively manage, lead, and train musicians? That could be as effective, if not more so, as hiring an evangelist-pastor.

Here’s where I come down on that question. If your church has grown to the size where it’s ready for a second hire, you should hire a pastor. An overseer. A shepherd. Someone who meets the qualifications of 1 Timothy 3 and Titus 1. Someone who can lead and care for the flock. That is essential.

Now, if he happens to be skilled in leading congregational song, that’s great. But not crucial. Scour the New Testament all you want and you won’t find a position devoted entirely to music. That doesn’t mean a church shouldn’t ever hire full time musicians. But it does suggest that as a church is starting out, the focus should be on the roles God has spelled out, not on secondary or strictly specialized positions: music, media, admin, and so on. An exception might be a part-time administrator who will help a pastor do everything he does more effectively.

Being a pastor and a musician who has participated in two church plants, I know the advantage of having a paid staff member who can lead worship in song. But I’m also aware of many young churches are led well musically by volunteers.

Having a musician as your second hire is appealing because many pastors would love to simply hand over the musical responsibilities to someone who has more gifting and time. But leading congregational song is a pastoral function before it’s a musical one. Every senior pastor should be very aware of what songs are being sung in his church. If the individual you’re considering to lead the music in your church isn’t willing and eager to follow you in this area, call someone else.

It’s no small irony that C.J., the pastor who has taught me the most about leading congregational song, is not a musician. Some of the values I’ve learned from him are the importance of esteeming God’s Word, understanding lyrics, emotional engagement, expression, spontaneity, pastoring through song, and more.

Obviously, musical skills are helpful for leading congregational song. It’s nice to know what keys are best to sing in (a rare skill these days), what songs go together musically, and what songs are out there. But all a church’s pastors together are responsible for the teaching diet of the church, and that includes the songs your congregation sings. Hiring a full-time music minister won’t free you from the responsibility of knowing what lyrics you’re singing and how music is serving the Word.

A second hire depends on a number of factors including the present pastor’s strengths and weaknesses, the available candidates, the needs of a congregation, and relational considerations. Rather than limit the field to someone who can lead worship in song, ask God to give you the individual who will serve and care for the church most effectively.

And if he happens to be a great musician, I don’t think you’ll be disappointed.

Bob Kauflin is the director of Sovereign Grace Music and one of the pastors of Sovereign Grace Church of Louisville. 

Biblical Theology: Ballast for Preaching (Part 2 of 3)

Good writers of story have an innate sense of how to take on ballast to accomplish their intended aim. In this respect, good writers are recognized as such, in part, for their ability to front-load characters or objects with traits or functions that take on greater significance later on. This subtlety is what makes us want to reread a book or watch a movie a second time. Early details, unnoticed when first exposed to them, are later recognized as relating to the story’s climax and resolution. Their significance is revealed when the author’s complete intention is fully made known.

It would appear that God, in his infinite wisdom, front-loaded his story by sovereignly endowing certain people, objects, and events with functions and traits that take on greater significance in the gospel. Because of this, good preaching will require the facility to recognize those correspondences in the story that provide ballast.

In the first post in this series we mentioned two, plot and theme. In this post we look at two more, typology and analogy. And it is best to consider them together.

TYPOLOGY AND ANALOGY

These correspondences may be broad—in which cases we simply call them analogies—or they may be narrower. When a person, event, institution, or object in the Bible narrowly anticipates some aspect of Jesus Christ, we call this typology.[1] There are many complex definitions of types. In simple terms, a type is usually a person (like Moses, or David) or an object (like the ark or sacrificial lamb) that anticipates or prefigures Jesus.

Because there are more types in the Bible than are explicitly named, preachers must be careful in how they approach typology. First, as preachers, it is easy for us to make more of typology than we should. Just because we see an object in the Old Testament that shares something in common with an object in the New Testament, it doesn’t necessarily follow that we have found a type.

For instance, just because Rahab’s cord is described as being scarlet, it doesn’t mean that God intends for us to connect it to the blood of Christ, as though both being red proves that God intended for us to bring them together. This is a fallacy. Ask yourself, if it had been green would you have been right to connect it to new life? Or, what if it had been purple? Would you have argued that God wanted us to tie it to the sign of Christ’s royalty? No, of course not.

Second, preachers often make the mistake of confusing typology for allegory. Gerald Bray explains allegory as “a method of reading a text by assuming that its literal sense conceals a hidden meaning, to be deciphered by using a particular hermeneutical key.”[2] This, also, is easy for preachers to do.

For example, we might suppose: “The five stones David picked up from the river bank are not intended to be stones at all. Rather, they are emblems for spiritual warfare that go by the names of faith, hope, prayer, courage, and fortitude.” Clearly, this is a mistake, yet one we commit all too frequently. And when we do, we actually work against the kind of ballast typology and analogy were intended to provide.

The principle is this: our use of analogy and typology should be rooted in textual and historical realities.[3] Acts 7 provides us with a good example. Stephen concludes his sermon by rebuking the Israelites for acting like their fathers and killing Jesus. Interestingly, this rebuke is grounded in a set of typological connections.[4] Stephen argues, from the lives of Joseph and Moses, that although God’s chosen ones were rejected by their own people, God nevertheless exalted them.

In a profoundly more important way, Stephen identifies the rejection and exaltation of Jesus as the climatic fulfillment of that pattern set down in the Scriptures long ago. The fate and glory of Joseph and Moses prefigure the fate and glory of the Lord Jesus Christ. In other words, the lives of those two leaders were intentionally front-loaded with characteristics that were intended by God to anticipate the person and work of his only Son.

Learning to preach well will require taking on the ballast that typology and analogy provide. And in this short post, we have observed some common mistakes as well as an example of a better way. Preachers would do well to know the difference as well as to know how to improve.

QUESTIONS TO ASK

Those who do it well begin making progress by asking a series of questions in their preparation:

  • Does my text seem to make use of typology or analogy? And if so, what makes me think that this type was intended by the Holy Spirit?
  • Do I have textual or historical grounds to believe that this is something more than merely a creation of my own imagination?
  • What is the textual and historical warrant for this type?
  • Can I trace a pattern of this kind of type in the Bible?

We are all looking to add some ballast to our preaching. Another way of saying this is that we need to make good use of biblical theology. So far, we have explored four tools that will assist us toward that end: plot, theme, typology, and analogy. These four tools are introduced in greater detail in Expositional Preaching, a soon-to-be-released book I have written in partnership with 9Marks and Crossway. In the final post of this series, I intend to introduce you to an online resource that was also designed to help you make progress with biblical theology.

David Helm is one of the pastors of Holy Trinity Church in Chicago, Chairman of the Charles Simeon Trust, and the author of Expositional Preaching: How We Speak God’s Word Today (forthcoming from Crossway, April 2014). Joel Miles is the Director of Training at the Charles Simeon Trust and a pastoral resident at Holy Trinity Church.

[1] These correspondences for typology come from Walter Eichrodt, “Is Typological Exegesis an Appropriate Method?” in Claus Westermann (ed.), Essays on Old Testament Hermeneutics (trans. J.L. Mays; Richmond: John Knox, 1964), 224-225. The list is picked up by several others, including: G.K. Beale, Handbook on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament: Exegesis and Interpretation (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2012), 44; Peter J. Gentry and Stephen J. Wellum, Kingdom Through Covenant: A Biblical-Theological Understanding of the Covenants (Wheaton: Crossway, 2012), 103; and Sidney Greidanus, Preaching Christ from the Old Testament: A Contemporary Hermeneutical Method (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999), 254-255.

[2] Gerald Bray, “Allegory,” in Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible (ed., Kevin Vanhoozer; Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2005), 34.

 [3] See Peter J. Gentry and Stephen J. Wellum, Kingdom Through Covenant: A Biblical-Theological Understanding of the Covenants (Wheaton: Crossway, 2012), 102-103.

 [4] See James M. Hamilton Jr., What is Biblical Theology? (Wheaton: Crossway, 2014), 44.