As a pastor of a church in Johnannesburg, South Africa, Nelson Mandela’s death is of major significance for my congregation. How should we respond to Mandela’s death? How should Christians and churches generally reflect on the life and legacy of this great man, even if he was not a believer?
2 Samuel 1 helps answer that question. Saul was David’s sworn enemy, obsessed with hunting down David to kill him. Yet when Saul dies, David does not gloat or rejoice. Instead, he mourned, tore his garments, and composed a public lament. It is a timeless example of a generous, gracious response to the death of a state leader. It is a model of appreciation for the good he has done. David even asks that this become a national war song for the nation of Israel. Here’s a taste:
Saul and Jonathan, beloved and lovely!
In life and in death they were not divided;
they were swifter than eagles;
they were stronger than lions.
You daughters of Israel, weep over Saul,
who clothed you luxuriously in scarlet,
who put ornaments of gold on your apparel.
How the mighty have fallen
in the midst of the battle! (2 Sam. 1:23-25)
And with David’s prayer in mind, here’s how I led Antioch Bible Church in prayer yesterday morning:
O Sovereign Lord, it is you who made the earth, the heaven, and the sea, and all that is in them. With Isaiah, we declare: “It is you who sit above the circle of the earth, and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers. You stretch out the heavens like a curtain and spread them out like a tent to dwell in. You reduce rulers to nothing, you make the judges of the earth meaningless. Scarcely have they planted, scarcely have they been sown, scarcely has their stock taken root in the earth, but you merely blow on them and they wither” (Isa. 40:22-24).
As all these dignitaries and heads of state descend upon this city, we confess that all their power combined is nothing compared to your omnipotence.
O Lord, we read in your Word that it was ‘In the year of King Uzziah’s death that Isaiah saw you sitting on a throne, lofty and exalted. The train of your robe filled the temple. Seraphim stood above you, each having six wings. With two he covered his feet, and with two he covered his face, and with two he flew. And one called out to another and said, “Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts, the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isa. 6:1-3).
Father, we thank you that in a time of great loss to a nation, with an uncertain future, at these times when we need it most, you show us your glory. You give us a vision of your absolute sovereignty. Your Word lifts our eyes above the mortal kings and fleeting kingdoms of this world to see you, the supreme King, the Lord of hosts, in all your glory and majesty.
Your Word tells us the king’s heart is like channels of water in your hands, you turn it wherever you wish (Prov. 21:1).
Every death reminds us that all flesh is like grass, and its glory like the flower of the field. The grass withers, the flower fades, but your Word endures forever (Isa. 40:8). Last Thursday night, a bright light in this world went out. But Christ, the Light of the World, cannot be extinguished (Jn. 8:10).
O God of all comfort, Father of all mercies, we ask that you comfort the Mandela family at this time of great loss. Comfort our entire nation during this time of grief and mourning.
Teach us to mourn with those who mourn, to weep with those who weep (Rom. 12:15). Indeed, how the mighty have fallen. We have lost a great leader, a father to this nation.
How merciful you have been to this land, to have given us Madiba for so long. What a display of your common grace to man that you would take a secular leader and use him to teach the world about reconciling forgiveness instead of bitter revenge. Thank you for this echo of the greatest reconciliation of all and the ultimate story of forgiveness: the message of a God who forgives, at the cost of his own Son’s life, every repentant sinner who comes to him.
Some two decades ago, when this country was on the brink of civil war and a bloodbath, you heard the prayers of your people. Your remarkable providence intervened and you sent Mandela for such a time as this. Lord, you do not treat us as our sins deserve. How compassionate and merciful you are!
Your Word tells us every human authority is established by you, and deserves our respect, submission and honour. No matter how ignorant earthly rulers might be of you and your rule over them, still we acknowledge their rule over us. Because we trust you, our sovereign, good, and wise God.
We pray for all those in authority in South Africa today, that they would learn from Mandela’s wise and humble example. And most of all, we pray that these leaders would tremble before you, submit to your Word, and come to know your beloved Son, our Lord Jesus.
We pray for the future of this great nation. We pray for peace, for law and order. We pray for real repentance for all wrongs and injustices that have been done, past and present. We pray for an end to the horrible scourge of crime. We pray for an end to the evils of abortion. We pray that the sanctity of marriage would be upheld. We pray for ongoing religious freedom.
Most of all, we pray for revival and reform in your Church, O Lord. O that you would rend the heavens and come down, and awaken your people! Strengthen your church. End hypocrisy. Purify your bride. Purge our sin. Make us a pure church. Holy Spirit, come!
As our nation grieves in the coming week and prepares for the upcoming funeral, we are reminded that your Word tells us it is better for us to go the house of mourning than the house of feasting, because death is the end of every man, and the living take it to heart (Eccl. 7:2-4).
Lord, teach us what you would have us to learn from Mandela’s death. Sober us with this public reminder of our own mortality. Sober us with another evidence that “the wages of sin is death” (Rom. 6:23), that it is “appointed unto man once to die, and after that to face the judgment” (Heb. 9:27). May none here today be unprepared to meet the living God.
O God, we all live on the brink of eternity, on the precipice of an everlasting Heaven or an unending Hell. Our life is but a vapour that appears for a little while, then vanishes (Jam. 4:14). Cause many to repent, lest they perish in their sins. Cause many to turn to Christ before it is too late, before their time comes (Luke 13:1-5).
In this season where we celebrate our Lord’s first appearing, we live in the hope of his second coming. We long for Christ’s final appearing, which you, Father, will bring about at the proper time. You are the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords. You alone possess immortality and dwell in unapproachable light. No man has seen or can see you. To you be honour and eternal dominion (1 Tim. 6:15-16). Amen.
Tim Cantrell is the senior pastor of Antioch Bible Church in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Over a century ago, speaking to the then-largest congregation in all Christendom, Charles Spurgeon said,
I believe that it is anti-Christian and unholy for any Christian to live with the object of accumulating wealth. You will say, “Are we not to strive all we can to get all the money we can?” You may do so. I cannot doubt but what, in so doing, you may do service to the cause of God. But what I said was that to live with the object of accumulating wealth is anti-Christian.
Over the years, however, the message being preached in some of the largest churches in the world has changed—indeed, a new gospel is being taught to many congregations today. This gospel has been ascribed many names, such as the “name it and claim it” gospel, the “blab it and grab it” gospel, the “health and wealth” gospel, the “prosperity gospel,” and “positive confession theology.”
No matter what name is used, the essence of this new gospel is the same. Simply put, this egocentric “prosperity gospel” teaches that God wants believers to be physically healthy, materially wealthy, and personally happy. Listen to the words of Robert Tilton, one of the prosperity gospel’s best-known spokesmen: “I believe that it is the will of God for all to prosper because I see it in the Word, not because it has worked mightily for someone else. I do not put my eyes on men, but on God who gives me the power to get wealth.” Teachers of the prosperity gospel encourage their followers to pray for and even demand material flourishing from God.
FIVE THEOLOGICAL ERRORS OF THE PROSPERITY GOSPEL
Recently, Russell Woodbridge and I wrote a book entitled Health, Wealth, and Happiness to examine the claims of prosperity gospel advocates. While our book is too wide-ranging to summarize here, in this article I’d like to review five doctrines we cover in our book—doctrines on which prosperity gospel advocates err. By discerning these errors regarding key doctrines, I hope readers of this article will plainly see the dangers of the prosperity gospel. The doctrines that I will cover are the Abrahamic covenant, the atonement, giving, faith, and prayer.
1. The Abrahamic covenant is a means to material entitlement.
The first error we’ll consider is that the prosperity gospel views the Abrahamic covenant as a means to material entitlement.
The Abrahamic covenant (Gen. 12, 15, 17, 22) is one of the theological bases of the prosperity gospel. It is good that prosperity theologians recognize that much of Scripture is the record of the fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant, but it is bad that they do not maintain an orthodox view of this covenant. They hold an incorrect view of the inception of the covenant; more significantly, they hold an erroneous view concerning the application of the covenant.
Edward Pousson best stated the prosperity view on the application of the Abrahamic covenant when he wrote, “Christians are Abraham’s spiritual children and heirs to the blessings of faith. . . . This Abrahamic inheritance is unpacked primarily in terms of material entitlements.” In other words, the prosperity gospel teaches that the primary purpose of the Abrahamic covenant was for God to bless Abraham materially. Since believers are now Abraham’s spiritual children, they have inherited these financial blessings.
Prosperity teacher Kenneth Copeland wrote, “Since God’s Covenant has been established and prosperity is a provision of this covenant, you need to realize that prosperity belongs to you now!”
To support this claim, prosperity teachers appeal to Galatians 3:14, which refers to “the blessings of Abraham [that] might come upon the Gentiles in Christ Jesus.” It is interesting, however, that in their appeals to Gal. 3:14, prosperity teachers ignore the second half of the verse, which reads, “…that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.” In this verse Paul was clearly reminding the Galatians of the spiritual blessing of salvation, not the material blessing of wealth.
2. Jesus’ atonement extends to the “sin” of material poverty.
A second theological error of the prosperity gospel is a faulty view of the atonement.
Theologian Ken Sarles writes that “the prosperity gospel claims that both physical healing and financial prosperity have been provided for in the Atonement.” This seems to be an accurate observation in light of Kenneth Copeland’s comment that “the basic principle of the Christian life is to know that God put our sin, sickness, disease, sorrow, grief, and poverty on Jesus at Calvary.” This misunderstanding of the scope of the atonement stems from two errors that proponents of the prosperity gospel make.
First, many who hold to prosperity theology have a fundamental misconception of the life of Christ. For example, teacher John Avanzini proclaimed, “Jesus had a nice house, a big house,” “Jesus was handling big money,” and he even “wore designer clothes.” It is easy to see how such a warped view of the life of Christ could lead to an equally warped misconception of the death of Christ.
A second error that leads to a faulty view of the atonement is a misinterpretation of 2 Corinthians 8:9, which reads, “For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that you through his poverty might become rich.” While a shallow reading of this verse may lead one to believe Paul was teaching about an increase in material wealth, a contextual reading reveals Paul was actually teaching the exact opposite principle. Indeed, Paul was teaching the Corinthians that since Christ accomplished so much for them through the atonement, they should empty themselves of their riches in service of the Savior. This is why just five short verses later Paul would urge the Corinthians to give their wealth away to their needy brothers, writing “that now at this time your abundance may supply their lack” (2 Cor. 8:14).
3. Christians give in order to gain material compensation from God.
A third error of the prosperity gospel is that Christians should give in order to gain material compensation from God. One of the most striking characteristics of the prosperity theologians is their seeming fixation with the act of giving. Students of the prosperity gospel are urged to give generously and are confronted with such pious statements as, “True prosperity is the ability to use God’s power to meet the needs of mankind in any realm of life,” and, “We have been called to finance the gospel to the world.” While these statements appear to be praiseworthy, this emphasis on giving is built on motives that are anything but philanthropic. The driving force behind this teaching on giving is what prosperity teacher Robert Tilton referred to as the “Law of Compensation.” According to this law, which is purportedly based on Mark 10:30, Christians need to give generously to others because when they do, God gives back more in return. This, in turn, leads to a cycle of ever-increasing prosperity.
As Gloria Copeland put it, “Give $10 and receive $1,000; give $1,000 and receive $100,000…in short, Mark 10:30 is a very good deal.” It is evident, then, that the prosperity gospel’s doctrine of giving is built upon faulty motives. Whereas Jesus taught his disciples to “give, hoping for nothing in return” (Luke 10:35), prosperity theologians teach their disciples to give because they will get a great return.
4. Faith is a self-generated spiritual force that leads to prosperity.
A fourth error of prosperity theology is its teaching that faith is a self-generated spiritual force that leads to prosperity. Whereas orthodox Christianity understands faith to be trust in the person of Jesus Christ, prosperity teachers espouse quite a different doctrine. In his book The Laws of Prosperity, Kenneth Copeland writes, “Faith is a spiritual force, a spiritual energy, a spiritual power. It is this force of faith which makes the laws of the spirit world function. . . . There are certain laws governing prosperity revealed in God’s Word. Faith causes them to function.” This is obviously a faulty, perhaps even heretical, understanding of faith.
According to prosperity theology, faith is not a God-granted, God-centered act of the will. Rather it is a humanly wrought spiritual force, directed at God. Indeed, any theology that views faith solely as a means to material gain rather than justification before God must be judged faulty and inadequate.
5. Prayer is a tool to force God to grant prosperity.
Finally, the prosperity gospel treats prayer as a tool to force God to grant prosperity. Prosperity gospel preachers often note that we “have not because we ask not” (Jas. 4:2). Advocates of the prosperity gospel encourage believers to pray for personal success in all areas of life. Creflo Dollar writes, “When we pray, believing that we have already received what we are praying, God has no choice but to make our prayers come to pass. . . . It is a key to getting results as a Christian.”
Certainly prayers for personal blessing are not inherently wrong, but the prosperity gospel’s overemphasis upon man turns prayer into a tool believers can use to force God to grant their desires.
Within prosperity theology, man—not God—becomes the focal point of prayer. Curiously, prosperity preachers often ignore the second half of James’ teaching on prayer which reads, “You ask and do not receive, because you ask wrongly, to spend it on your passions” (Jas. 4:3). God does not answer selfish requests that do not honor his name.
Certainly all our requests should be made known to God (cf. Phil. 4:6), but the prosperity gospel focuses so much upon man’s desires that it may lead people to pray selfish, shallow, superficial prayers that do not bring God glory. Furthermore, when coupled with the prosperity doctrine of faith, this teaching may lead people to attempt to manipulate God to get what they want—a futile task. This is far removed from praying that God’s will would be done.
A FALSE GOSPEL
In light of Scripture, the prosperity gospel is fundamentally flawed. At bottom, the prosperity gospel is actually a false gospel because of its faulty view of the relationship between God and man. Simply put, if the prosperity gospel is true, grace is obsolete, God is irrelevant, and man is the measure of all things. Whether they are talking about the Abrahamic covenant, the atonement, giving, faith, or prayer, prosperity teachers turn the relationship between God and man into a quid pro quo transaction. As James R. Goff noted, God is “reduced to a kind of ‘cosmic bellhop’ attending to the needs and desires of his creation.” This is a wholly inadequate and unbiblical view of the relationship between God and man.
David W. Jones is Associate Professor of Christian Ethics at the Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary.
 Tom Carter, ed., 2,200 Quotations from the Writings of Charles H. Spurgeon (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1988), 216.
 Robert Tilton, God’s Word about Prosperity (Dallas, TX: Word of Faith Publications, 1983), 6.
 David W. Jones and Russell S. Woodbridge, Health, Wealth, and Happiness: Has the Prosperity Gospel Overshadowed the Gospel of Christ? (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2010).
 Edward Pousson, Spreading the Flame (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992), 158.
 Kenneth Copeland, The Laws of Prosperity (Fort Worth, TX: Kenneth Copeland Publications, 1974), 51.
 Ken L. Sarles, “A Theological Evaluation of the Prosperity Gospel,” Bibliotheca Sacra 143 (Oct.-Dec. 1986): 339.
 Kenneth Copeland, The Troublemaker (Fort Worth, TX: Kenneth Copeland Publications, 1996), 6.
 John Avanzini, “Believer’s Voice of Victory,” program on TBN, 20 January 1991. Quoted in Hank Hanegraaff, Christianity in Crisis (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1993), 381.
 Idem, “Praise the Lord,” program on TBN, 15 September 1988. Quoted in Hanegraaff, 381.
 Avanzini, “Believer’s Voice of Victory.”
 Kenneth Copeland, The Laws of Prosperity, 26.
 Gloria Copeland, God’s Will is Prosperity (Fort Worth, TX: Kenneth Copeland Publications, 1973), 45.
 Other verses that the “Law of Compensation” is based upon include Eccl. 11:1, 2 Cor. 9:6, and Gal. 6:7.
 Gloria Copeland, God’s Will, 54.
 Kenneth Copeland, The Laws of Prosperity, 19.
 Creflo Dollar, “Prayer: Your Path to Success,” March 2, 2009, http://www.creflodollarministries.org/BibleStudy/Articles.aspx?id=329 (accessed on October 30, 2013).
 James R. Goff, Jr., “The Faith That Claims,” Christianity Today, vol. 34, February 1990, 21.
Over the past year of ministry I’ve come to recognize a troubling tendency in myself. It’s a tendency toward what you might call vicarious faith. My confidence in the power of God's Word—of its truth, its beauty, its relevance—is far too closely tied to the visible faith of those I serve as they respond to the Word.
When people connect with what I preach or teach or counsel from Scripture—when they get it and love it—my faith in the Word is strong. When what I say doesn’t seem to resonate—when it comes off as abstract, unbelievable, impractical—my faith in the Word tends to shrink.
I call this vicarious faith because it’s mediated and indirect. It’s not faith rooted in the Word itself. It’s faith tethered to the results of the Word I can see with my eyes in the faith of others.
I was especially convicted of this problem by a fresh reading of 2 Timothy a couple months ago. It's one of Paul’s most personal letters. As perhaps his final letter, it has a clear retrospective feel, and it’s deeply introspective. Given this context, one phrase in particular stands out: “All who are in Asia left me.”
Was the apostle being hyperbolic? Almost certainly. But this hyperbole reveals his state of mind. Paul’s statement has been described as the “sweeping assertion of depression” (Donald Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles, 135). It is the statement of a man who knows what it is to be disappointed with the results of one’s ministry.
The rest of the letter offers a few examples of what he’s experienced. He writes of Hymenaeus and Philetus, who “swerved from the truth” and opposed Paul’s message with their own speculative babble (2:16-17). Then there’s Demas, a colleague in ministry who fell “in love with this present world,” deserting Paul for the greener grass of Thessalonica (4:9). Alexander, a coppersmith, somehow caused the apostle “great harm” (4:14). And when Paul stood trial, he stood alone—“all deserted me” (4:16).
These are remarkable words, aren’t they? In a way they’re encouraging for all of us who’ve felt the sense that our work is in vain. Even the great apostle himself knew what it was to labor with disappointment. Here in this letter Paul is near to death and he knows it (4:6-8). He’s all alone. And he’s living with the realization that much of what he’d taken for fruit has withered on the vine.
The truly remarkable thing about this letter and its context is that it’s here, from this man in this condition, that we receive perhaps the Bible’s clearest and most definitive statement on the all-sufficiency of Scripture. “All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable...” (3:16-17).
And it’s here that Paul draws his unflinching methodological conclusion: “Preach the Word; be ready in season and out of season” (4:2).
The Word is profitable, Paul insists, even when the results have been discouraging. So there’s nothing to do but to keep on preaching that Word, in season and out of season. When Asia responds well and when Asia turns away.
Paul’s faith is in what God has said and not in what he sees. He knows the power of the Word is never under our control, like a genie in a bottle. The source of its power is the Spirit who, like the wind, blows where he will, subject to no man’s fancy. But however unpredictable, the Word is still the only power that can bring the sort of transformation people really need. I’m reminded of Peter’s words, when Jesus asked him if he too would leave: “To whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life” (John 6:68).
Even when it doesn’t work according to our desires, or in a way perceivable by our senses, the Word is still the only thing that works. That’s the implication of Paul’s final charge to Timothy. Do you believe it? I wish I believed it more.
On the one hand, I’ve seen beautiful evidence that the Word’s power is what Paul claims it to be. On the other hand, I’ve also noticed this troubling temptation to allow my confidence in the Word to rise and fall with the extent to which others find it compelling, relevant, or trustworthy.
Surely I’m not alone. Does your personal conviction of what you preach depend on whether people connect with what you preach? Does your love for the Bible’s message vary with whether others seem to love that message or not? Do we believe the promises of Romans 8 when they seem cliché or unrealistic to the one who is suffering? Are we convinced of the power of those gospel-centered “one anothers” when the relationships aren’t restored, when the marriages don’t improve, when the anger or resentment doesn’t go away? Do we believe that God’s Word won’t return void even when our churches aren’t growing as we’d like? Too often, I wish my answers weren’t what they are.
What I’m praying towards—what Paul models for us in 2 Timothy—is what you could call a promise-driven pragmatism. It’s entirely appropriate that we should be fixated on what works in ministry. But how do we define what works? Our desire is to see individuals and communities transformed, which is to say our goals are supernatural. Only God’s power can accomplish what we want accomplished, and often, only God can see what he’s accomplishing. This means the primary measure of what works must be the promise of God, not the results we see from our perspective. His promise is that the Word is profitable, powerful enough to secure everything we really need—whether we see it or not.
[For more on the power of God’s Word to bring life and change, see Jonathan Leeman’s Reverberation: How God’s Word Brings Light, Freedom, and Action to His People.]
Matt McCullough is the pastor of Trinity Church in Nashville, Tennessee and the author of The Cross of War: Christian Nationalism and U.S. Expansion in the Spanish-American War (University of Wisconsin Press, forthcoming).
Here’s an interesting reality: lots of people want to love God today. That’s what they say. Check out the polls regularly printed in USA Today, for example, and you’ll find that most people are not in fact hardened secularists waiting to pounce like a hyena on any Christian they can find. You may pick up that impression from the news media or talking heads on TV, but that’s not how many people represent their desires. Many folks want to get in touch with God. Of course, they don’t know how, and many don’t really follow through. Without God’s redeeming grace, our sin gets in the way of our best intentions.
But the point stands: a good number of folks would at least say that they want to love God. I think you would baffle many people, though, if you extended the question to this: “Do you want to love the church—an actual, real, existing local church in your area?”
It’s at this point that a lot of people would drop out. They would argue that they’re “spiritual,” but not really religious. They believe in a living relationship with the Lord, not a ritualistic one. They can worship God anywhere, and they don’t need to be confined to a building.
Perhaps, in fact, this voices your perspective. Maybe you’ve been burned by a church. You don’t associate the local church with a place of joyful worship where you encounter the transcendent Lord of heaven and earth. In fact, there are so many people who have had negative experiences that I think it’s worth saying what the church is not:
- The local church is not a social club for gossip, albeit with pews and a slightly odd smell.
- It’s not a place where you go to observe a whole bunch of weird rules that have no connection to everyday life.
- It’s not a political organization dedicated to the preservation of “what America used to be” or to a social agenda overturning traditional American ideals.
- It’s not primarily about feeling better, thinking more positively, achieving your best self, spiritually “winning,” or getting healthier.
- It’s not a building, a place where some people go during the week to observe some old rituals that nobody really understands but that are considered valuable because they create togetherness and make people feel spiritual.
- It’s not a place where people who look like one another congregate and do all they can to keep others who aren’t like them out.
- It’s not a spiritual smoothie bar where you go when you have a sudden and unexplainable rush to get close to God, only never to return.
- It’s not a money-raising organization or a series of weekly seminars on success. The church is not a personal improvement organization such that you can climb the economic ladder, get better jobs, and become fabulously wealthy just by going there.
These are eight ways of thinking about the church that people adopt today. They all fall short in different ways of what it actually means to love God and his church. You may have experienced some form of these conceptions of the church. You may have gone to a church that was all about rules, for example, or that never really preached about the Bible.
A church may have legitimately angered you, offended you, hurt you, confused you, or bored you. I don’t know where you’re coming from, but I know that no local church is perfect, and that there are many places that are not true churches that nonetheless call themselves by this weighty name.
But what is the local church, then? Well, first and foremost, it’s a group devoted to worshiping the living God according to his inerrant Word, the Bible. It’s an outpost for weary people burdened by sin to meet God and be transformed by him. The church building may not look exciting from the outside, or it may be an aesthetic masterpiece. Whatever the building looks like, though, I can assure you that the local church truly is exciting, because when it’s devoted to God’s Word, it is the body of Christ. It’s a tangible, visible sign that God is real and working and moving in our world.
You could say it this way: the church is created by the gospel, and the church is edified by the gospel. God loves the local church. He made it, after all. It’s his brainstorm. God is super-creative. He’s the ultimate aesthete. He loves beauty and full-orbed, surround-sound faith. He wants all our senses and emotions to be engaged in weekly worship. So we pray, sing, hear the Word read and preached, eat the bread and drink the wine, and share fellowship together.
The Lord wants these blessings for us. We experience them when we join local churches (see 1 Cor. 5 and its discussion of those “outside” and “inside” the Corinthian congregation). What’s called “church membership” is very important in Scripture. Our redeemer wants every born-again Christian to be in fellowship with others so we can build one another up in the faith. He wants us to be baptized as our public declaration that we’ve passed through the waters of judgment and have risen from spiritual death through Christ. He wants us to partake of the Lord’s Supper to remember Jesus’ death on our behalf.
I didn’t grow up in a massive congregation. I grew up in a small church on the coast of Maine. There weren’t many believers around. But I was trained to see the church as an inherently dignified gathering regardless of how many people attended on Sunday. My father was steadfastly committed to the First Baptist Church of East Machias. He went every week to prayer meeting; he and my mother were faithful to the church even through troubled times. They modeled covenantal commitment to their church. I am grateful they did.
It made a mark on me.
Church was a natural part of my youth; without really knowing it, I was formed in the worldview we’re discussing here. I was being trained in the holy rhythms of a Godward life. I heard the preaching; ate the tiny little communion crackers barely visible to the human eye; sang in the Christmas choir. We weren’t a large body, but we were devoted to the Lord.
More important, he was devoted to us.
He is devoted to every church, to every local expression of the global people of Christ, however humble, however popular. So should we be.
Owen Strachan is Assistant Professor of Christian Theology and Church History at Boyce College in Louisville, Kentucky and the Executive Director of the Council on Biblical Manhood & Womanhood.
Editors' Note: This is an excerpt from Owen Strachan's Risky Gospel: Abandon Fear and Build Something Awesome (Thomas Nelson), which releases today. You can check out the book's website and watch a trailer here.
We need the church. It’s the ultimate community, created by almighty God so that people like you and me can flourish, laugh, learn, grow, weep, and love Christ together.
We’re not meant by God to be lone rangers. We’re made to plug into the fabric of a living body, one aimed not simply at life change or communal uplift but at the glory of God.
Coming to a church, a group of believers covenanted together in the name of Christ, is like happening across a crowd of people on a sidewalk. They’re all staring upward. They see something that is clearly blowing their minds. Maybe their hair is standing on end. You ask them who they are and what they’re doing, and they reply, “Seeking God.” Okay, so the analogy’s mildly weird, but that’s the point: this is a group of people who are zeroed in on transcendence. They’re not content to talk about it in their dorm rooms or book club. They can’t just name-check the Lord or wear a “Jesus piece,” as Kanye West does. They are compelled by something in them, something mysterious, to worship God.
But that’s the crazy thing: they don’t want to do it by themselves.
They have an insatiable appetite to get together with other people and worship God. Is that merely a natural instinct? You know: if we’re going to be outside burning sticks, trying to heat our dinner over an open flame, we may as well congregate?
We’re by nature sociable as humans, but there’s something more happening in the church.
Our instinct for togetherness comes directly from that same source we were just talking about: God, more specifically, a Trinitarian God. The Father, Son, and Spirit are the central reality of Christianity. The three persons of the Godhead are each fully God. There is nothing lacking or incomplete in any of them. Yet in a way that is thoroughly brainbending, they want communion with one another. They don’t each rule a separate part of the universe; they live in perfect harmony with one another, loving one another, agreeing with one another, manifesting their glory together.
Maybe you’re thinking, Whoa! We just went from 0 to 60, dude. First we’re talking about some church; now we’re on the deepest mysteries of the universe? Yeah. Kind of. But this link makes sense. We want to be together as humans because the persons of the Trinity are together as God. We’re the image of God, remember? The society of heaven has created a society on earth. We were made for communion and friendship and happiness and perfect love, because that’s what the Trinity experiences.
So that, my friend, is why we want a church. We’re social beings, like the Father, Son, and Spirit. We’re made for the church. We don’t just want togetherness; we want togetherness based on the best thing there is: God. We want to worship something. We were made for this purpose. God didn’t just want his creatures to scurry all over the place like human ants. He made us to crave, love, desire, yearn, delight in, and enjoy him.
Passion is infused in us. Love is hardwired in us.
We’re made to adore, celebrate, and shout as loud as our lungs will allow, “I LOVE YOU!” And we’re made to do it together, as a church.
Owen Strachan is Assistant Professor of Christian Theology and Church History at Boyce College in Louisville, Kentucky and the Executive Director of the Council on Biblical Manhood & Womanhood. He is the author of the forthcoming Risky Gospel (Thomas Nelson).
Note: This post is an excerpt from Risky Gospel, posted here with the publisher's permission.
Robby Gallaty is a personal friend of mine and a godly man who loves Jesus and wants others to love Jesus. His passion to help people live out the glorious Commission of our Lord is evident in his life and in this book. But friendship aside, I read his book Growing Up as a pastor looking for a good resource to challenge me and those I’m discipling. In fact, I read it with a few guys from my church (Tim, Dan, Luis) and spent an early Friday morning talking through things we liked about the book as well as things we felt were lacking.
We all agreed that Robby’s personal touch and well-illustrated writing make for an easy read. Growing Up is a resource that is accessible for just about anyone, and each of us were able to read it in a few days. It is filled with quotable lines from both Robby and others.
Growing Up is organized in two sections. The first four chapters lay out our Lord’s call to be disciples that make disciples. These chapters highlight Robby’s personal transformation through discipleship, his recommendation to be in a discipleship group (aka “D-Group,” 3-5 people committed to 12-18 months of weekly discipling meetings), and the call to train ourselves for godliness in the context of discipleship relationships.
The remaining six chapters give practical prescriptions that should mark the lives of growing disciples. These chapters follow the acrostic C.L.O.S.E.R., each letter representing a spiritual discipline that helps us develop a closer walk with Jesus.
Click here to continue reading.
Have you ever seen someone gawk at an evangelical? I don’t know if the phrase is unique to him, but I’ve often heard Al Mohler refer to this as the “National Geographic effect.” What he means is that secular Westerners—especially elites—sometimes respond to evangelical Christians about like they’d respond to rumors of cannibalistic tribes in the South Pacific: “Wait—there are still people like that out there!?”
If life can imitate art, it can certainly imitate the good Dr. Mohler’s verbal art. Enter the National Geographic Channel’s new niche reality show Church Rescue, which premieres tonight.
Think Extreme Home Makeover: Church Edition. The show features three church consultants who run an outfit called Church Hoppers: Kevin “Rev Kev” Adams, their business analyst; Anthony “Gladamere” Lockhart, the marketing specialist; and the spiritual counselor, Jerry “Doc” Bentley.
The first episode features New Hope Baptist Church outside Charlotte, pastored by Larry Roseboro. This largely African-American congregation is described as “Bapticostal”—a Baptist church where people get “slain in the Spirit” and the service lasts four hours.
The pastor’s dream, which his late wife shared, is to exchange the church’s cramped, shabby building for a more expansive facility that will draw more people. But like so many dreams, this one comes with a price tag: $1.4 million to be precise—a hefty sum for a small, rural church with only $40,000 in the bank.
The Church Hoppers begin their work with an unannounced Sunday morning audit. After experiencing all there is to experience in the morning worship service, they talk with Pastor Roseboro about his dreams and frustrations. Among the latter are a host of problems with the building: torn carpet, no air conditioner, rainwater flowing in the back door. But, Pastor Roseboro wonders, why throw money at the old building when it could be put toward a new one?
Not only that, but we learn from Roseboro and some of his congregants that he’s bearing the pastoral load alone. A deacon formerly assisted him, but Roseboro and Brother Curtis fell out some time ago.
Here a Southern, spiritualized spin on the standard consulting script kicks in. Our three consultants assess New Hope’s problems over lunch, hatching a three-point plan. On Monday they sit down for “the hardcore truth meeting” with Pastor Roseboro. If Roseboro wants his church to grow, he needs to invest in the current building, reconcile with Curtis and reinstate him as deacon, and split his four-hour service into two shorter ones featuring more focused, concise sermons.
What does Pastor Roseboro make of these recommendations? You’ll have to watch to find out.
In one sense, the National Geographic effect is up and running. The choice of a “Bapticostal” church for the first episode is evidence enough. And future episodes promise a biker church, a cowboy church, and a synagogue. Yes, a synagogue. The Religion News Service article on the show reports that the three protagonists hail from the Southern Baptist Convention, and they certainly sound like evangelicals. Yet the fact that a synagogue is in line for a “church rescue” tells you all you need to know about the show’s theological acuity.
Happily, a few moments of spiritual perception shine through. For instance, Doc remarks that the pastor’s problem is that he’s as passionate about getting his way as he is about spreading the Word. But the following comment by Gladamere is more typical: “We’re in the Bible belt, where there’s a church on every corner. To stand out, you’ve got to improve your curb appeal, so when people drive by, the church is beautiful and inviting.”
The show is well-produced and the protagonists are likeable. Somewhat despite myself, the first episode kind of made me want to see the others. And to their credit, National Geographic lets the Church Hoppers tell their own stories.
But I actually wish the National Geographic effect were in fuller swing. The problems New Hope Baptist Church faces are problems anyone can understand: soured relationships and a run-down building. So also the solutions: extend an olive branch and install new carpet. Any consultant can tell you that.
But every church’s problems run deeper. Sure, their symptoms show up in ways everyone can relate to, but the causes lie hidden from unredeemed sight. Ultimately, there’s only one church Rescuer, the eternal Son of God who became a man and died on the cruel cross to purchase and perfect his people. And the message of his rescue repairs and refreshes his church all the way to its roots.
As it is, Church Rescue is a friendly, innocuous, late-period artifact of the shrinking Bible Belt. But if the show were about the real rescue, it would give people a reason to stop and gawk.
Bobby Jamieson is assistant editor for 9Marks, a member of Third Avenue Baptist Church in Louisville, Kentucky, and the author of Sound Doctrine: How a Church Grows in the Love and of God (Crossway, 2013). You can follow him on Twitter.
Editor's Note: this piece is cross-posted from Schaeffer's Ghost with the kind permission of its editors.
Autumn represents that time of year when high school seniors and others make final decisions about where to apply to college. Early application deadlines are due in November, while regular deadlines come in January.
What does the average senior look for in a college? People generally want to maximize the balance between a school’s academic prestige, cost, location, social life, extracurricular programs, and so forth. All reasonable variables to consider.
But how often have you heard a seventeen-year-old say, “I’m considering this college because there is a great church nearby”? Or, “It’s a good university, but I’m not going to apply because I asked around and couldn’t discover any good churches in that town.”
A godly brother looking at various graduate programs said the latter to me a few days ago. For him it meant he was rejecting a school where some of the top scholars in his field teach.
Do you think my friend is being foolish? After all, college is only for a few years. Should the presence of a nearby healthy church really make or break what school you decide to attend?
Oh, please, yes. Follow my friend’s example. I dare say, determining whether there is a nearby healthy church may not be the most important criteria for a Christian in the college-selection process, but it should be a non-negotiable. If there is no healthy church nearby, Christian, there’s another college for you, somewhere.
EIGHT REASONS WHY A HEALTHY CHURCH IS A NON-NEGOTIABLE
Here are eight reasons why:
1) We were not made to be Christians alone.
Read through the Bible and find me a Christian who is not attached to a church (minus the first convert where no church exists, like the Ethiopian eunuch). To be adopted by God is to be adopted into his family. And we “put on” that family identity—we live out the family life—in a concrete local church. Try living as a family member apart from your family. That’s the Christian apart from a church.
Apart from a church, your faith in college will probably not grow, it will most likely shrivel, and it may well die. What growth does occur will be like the young sapling that grows at an angle because it had no stake.
2) Christians need not only fellowship, but also member accountability and elders.
Christian college students have long tried to sustain their faith through parachurch groups like InterVarsity and Cru. Parachurch ministries are valuable (I work for one), but the parachurch is not the church, and the Christian life needs what a healthy church provides:
- in-depth biblical exposition;
- the accountable fellowship of church membership and discipline;
- and the counsel and care of biblically qualified elders.
Jesus is not just a Savior, but a Lord. And this Lord exercises his Lordship through biblical exposition, congregational accountability, and elder leadership. Further, these things nourish your faith, like exercise and a healthy diet nourish the body.
Our faith needs more than fellowship; it needs the shepherding and structure of a local church. (See parachurch worker Byron Straughn’s excellent comparison of church and parachurch as a family versus a soccer team.)
3) College is often when we no longer have the life-long social support of our parents’ church and faith.
For children growing up in a Christian home, their parents’ faith and church act like the support beams that hold up a house perched on the edge of a cliff. Going off to college is like removing those support beams. You’ll quickly discover, is that house firmly fixed to the rock, or will it tumble into the sea?
Now, true faith is supernatural—a gift of God—which will finally survive with our without social support. Still, removing the parental beams can do great damage unless they are replaced by a church.
4) Secular colleges and universities will denounce your faith in the classroom.
It’s no secret that secular colleges and universities have become fairly hostile to a Christian worldview in the modern and postmodern West.
To put it another way, many of your professors will treat you as silly and naïve if you don’t join them in their fabricated reality where man is God and God is dead. Expositional preaching, on the other hands, describes reality as it really is—God centered, God-directed, God-judged. And you need this weekly antidote, lest you begin to believe that the academy’s cardboard movie-set version of reality is the real thing.
Young people should have the opportunity to ask hard and real questions about their faith. There is a time to wrestle with truth. No parent or pastor can demand that a student believe what they believe, and every person coming of age needs the opportunity to take ownership of their faith for themselves. But good luck doing that objectively apart from the influence of a healthy church, because the gravitational pull of your flesh and the university world is strong and moves in one direction only—away from God. You need to be able to hear both sides of an argument to ask and answer questions well.
5) On-campus social life typically offers a make-believe social world where freedom costs nothing and sin has few consequences.
I attended a secular university in the early 1990s, and I remember referring even then to the experience as “camp without counselors.” So many of us went to college to play, to party, to enjoy everything we couldn’t enjoy openly with parents around. On-campus college life was about alcohol and sex as much as it was about anything. And as long as you use a condom, say all the university officials, there is no such thing as consequences. Have fun!
It’s an understatement to say, “You’ll face many temptations in college.” The whole social experience is built on the idea that the human being needs complete freedom to define oneself and one’s morality in order to flourish. For many, the rush of responsibility-free freedom itself is the most intoxicating thing of all. Never mind that it’s a lie.
You desperately need a strong church helping you to stand strong amidst such winds. All of us do.
6) Many shipwreck their lives, their faith, their souls in college.
Perhaps you’ve seen the statistics: 60 percent of teenagers who go into college with faith appear to abandon it coming out the other side. Only 20 percent maintain a faith consistent with their high school years.
In other words, you can assume that people with more spiritual conviction and moral idealism than you on their first day of college squandered it entirely in college. Don’t be proud. Recognize your need for a healthy church.
7) College is often a time of self-discovery and the establishing of your adult identity.
With the support beams of your parent’s home removed, you really do begin the process of discovering who you are in college. Did you get homework done in high school because dad was watching over your shoulder, or because you’re self-disciplined? What do you want to major in? How will you make use of your days when you suddenly find yourself with an excess of unstructured time?
These are questions you want to explore and answer with the help of older and wiser Christians who have gone through different stages of life. Campus ministries serve good purposes, but just about everyone in them is your age! Don’t deprive yourself of older saints as you try to figure out who you are.
8) A healthy-church-backed Christian can do great evangelistic and discipling good in college.
I attended church three times in college (as I recall). And though I named myself a Christian, I utterly squandered my college years from a kingdom perspective. Instead I pursued the world with all my might.
Yet I can point to friends who made great use of their college years, evangelizing, discipling, and doing good. Since people between 18 and 22 are still making up their minds up concerning life and eternity, it’s a good time to evangelize and to disciple. Just think: you can play a role in helping others establish good foundations that will bear fruit in their lives for eternity.
Or you can do what I did: help people harden their hearts against God and prepare for hell. Which of those two options offers a better return on your time and investment?
WHAT IS A HEALTHY CHURCH?
Suppose you agree that finding a healthy church is paramount (I thought I’d throw in a SAT word for your fun!). What exactly is a healthy church?
First, a healthy church does a number of things: it builds itself up through God’s Word and not the wisdom of the world. It looks to the Bible for guidance on how to structure itself, not the latest polls or marketing methods. More significantly, it centers the weekly gathering around meaty biblical exposition, the proclamation of the gospel, and the practical application of the gospel to all of life. A healthy church keeps track of its members, and calls them to live responsibly in the world. And a healthy church possesses a plurality of godly men for pastoring, praying, and preaching. It loves God and it loves its neighbors in manifold practical ways.
Second, a healthy church is a number of things: it is hospitable, loving, and holy. It speaks in a language the world can understand, but it lives distinctly from the world. It’s culturally different somehow. Not that the people are weird or dress funny, it’s more that they are unusually welcoming, not suspicious of strangers, personally transparent, generous, quick to laugh but sober-minded, uninterested in evil but rejoice in the truth. It’s a place where old and young, rich and poor, educated and uneducated, one ethnicity and another find equal standing and the opportunity to serve.
So get your list of potential colleges together, but then talk to your pastor, talk to Christians on the prospective campuses, check out the 9Marks Church Search, even call and visit some churches before you decide on a college. It will be one of the most significant decisions you make about college.
Friends, there's a new 9Marks Journal out. It's our second on evangelism and it features a series of practical case studies. We've been releasing the articles here one-by-one, but now it's all gathered together with an editor's note by Jonathan Leeman, and is available in PDF, Mobi, and ePub formats.
Here's Jonathan's editor's note:
Christians in the West today face growing social and political opposition. And this makes many of us nervous about evangelism. One member of my church explained how, in a prior job, he hit a glass ceiling while his evangelical friends in the firm kept being promoted. The difference? They kept quiet about their faith, while he evangelized. Now, in the new job, he was confessing his fear and asking me to pray for boldness.
In such a time as ours, we might learn from historian Samuel Hugh Moffett, who narrates the dramatic diminution of Christianity under Muslim persecution in Asia in the Middle Ages in his magisterial A History of Christianity in Asia. He draws this conclusion: “The church might have better withstood violence. Sharp persecution breaks off only the tips of the branches; it produces martyrs and the tree still grows. Never-ending social and political repression, on the other hand, starves the roots; it stifles evangelism and the church declines” (Vol. 1: Beginnings to 1500, Orbis, p. 504).
The lesson: let them fire you and maybe kill your pastors, but you keep on evangelizing. Else the church really could whither, even vanish, from the land.
In the middle of a recent elders’ discussion about something or other—the church budget, I think it was—Mark Dever leaned over to me and randomly whispered, “The more elders we have, the harder it will be to get rid of us.”
There it is. That’s the spirit.
Dever’s mentor, Richard Sibbes, offered this encouragement amidst such dour earthly expectations: “Cast yourself into the arms of Christ, and if you perish, perish there” (The Bruised Reed, Puritan Paperbacks, 63).
So, friends, let’s press on to share the gospel—winsomely, sensitively, awkwardly, boldly, charismatically, timidly, sophisticatedly…whatever. Just share it.
We thought about cultivating a culture of evangelism in the last issue of the 9Marks Journal. In this issue, we want to get even more practical by thinking about how to evangelize in different contexts: in the workplace, in your church, in your neighborhood, in a cross-cultural setting, across economic boundaries, with internationals in your own city, and without an altar call (what?!). We also address an issue of growing concern for many Christians: how do you share the gospel with a gay friend?
Cultures and nations rise and fall. The world will treat us sometimes better, sometimes worse. But whether the social trend lines are moving up or down, we must not stop sharing the good news of the one king whose promises are all true and all good.
Click here for the whole Journal.