Good writers of story have an innate sense of how to take on ballast to accomplish their intended aim. In this respect, good writers are recognized as such, in part, for their ability to front-load characters or objects with traits or functions that take on greater significance later on. This subtlety is what makes us want to reread a book or watch a movie a second time. Early details, unnoticed when first exposed to them, are later recognized as relating to the story’s climax and resolution. Their significance is revealed when the author’s complete intention is fully made known.
It would appear that God, in his infinite wisdom, front-loaded his story by sovereignly endowing certain people, objects, and events with functions and traits that take on greater significance in the gospel. Because of this, good preaching will require the facility to recognize those correspondences in the story that provide ballast.
In the first post in this series we mentioned two, plot and theme. In this post we look at two more, typology and analogy. And it is best to consider them together.
TYPOLOGY AND ANALOGY
These correspondences may be broad—in which cases we simply call them analogies—or they may be narrower. When a person, event, institution, or object in the Bible narrowly anticipates some aspect of Jesus Christ, we call this typology. There are many complex definitions of types. In simple terms, a type is usually a person (like Moses, or David) or an object (like the ark or sacrificial lamb) that anticipates or prefigures Jesus.
Because there are more types in the Bible than are explicitly named, preachers must be careful in how they approach typology. First, as preachers, it is easy for us to make more of typology than we should. Just because we see an object in the Old Testament that shares something in common with an object in the New Testament, it doesn’t necessarily follow that we have found a type.
For instance, just because Rahab’s cord is described as being scarlet, it doesn’t mean that God intends for us to connect it to the blood of Christ, as though both being red proves that God intended for us to bring them together. This is a fallacy. Ask yourself, if it had been green would you have been right to connect it to new life? Or, what if it had been purple? Would you have argued that God wanted us to tie it to the sign of Christ’s royalty? No, of course not.
Second, preachers often make the mistake of confusing typology for allegory. Gerald Bray explains allegory as “a method of reading a text by assuming that its literal sense conceals a hidden meaning, to be deciphered by using a particular hermeneutical key.” This, also, is easy for preachers to do.
For example, we might suppose: “The five stones David picked up from the river bank are not intended to be stones at all. Rather, they are emblems for spiritual warfare that go by the names of faith, hope, prayer, courage, and fortitude.” Clearly, this is a mistake, yet one we commit all too frequently. And when we do, we actually work against the kind of ballast typology and analogy were intended to provide.
The principle is this: our use of analogy and typology should be rooted in textual and historical realities. Acts 7 provides us with a good example. Stephen concludes his sermon by rebuking the Israelites for acting like their fathers and killing Jesus. Interestingly, this rebuke is grounded in a set of typological connections. Stephen argues, from the lives of Joseph and Moses, that although God’s chosen ones were rejected by their own people, God nevertheless exalted them.
In a profoundly more important way, Stephen identifies the rejection and exaltation of Jesus as the climatic fulfillment of that pattern set down in the Scriptures long ago. The fate and glory of Joseph and Moses prefigure the fate and glory of the Lord Jesus Christ. In other words, the lives of those two leaders were intentionally front-loaded with characteristics that were intended by God to anticipate the person and work of his only Son.
Learning to preach well will require taking on the ballast that typology and analogy provide. And in this short post, we have observed some common mistakes as well as an example of a better way. Preachers would do well to know the difference as well as to know how to improve.
QUESTIONS TO ASK
Those who do it well begin making progress by asking a series of questions in their preparation:
- Does my text seem to make use of typology or analogy? And if so, what makes me think that this type was intended by the Holy Spirit?
- Do I have textual or historical grounds to believe that this is something more than merely a creation of my own imagination?
- What is the textual and historical warrant for this type?
- Can I trace a pattern of this kind of type in the Bible?
We are all looking to add some ballast to our preaching. Another way of saying this is that we need to make good use of biblical theology. So far, we have explored four tools that will assist us toward that end: plot, theme, typology, and analogy. These four tools are introduced in greater detail in Expositional Preaching, a soon-to-be-released book I have written in partnership with 9Marks and Crossway. In the final post of this series, I intend to introduce you to an online resource that was also designed to help you make progress with biblical theology.
David Helm is one of the pastors of Holy Trinity Church in Chicago, Chairman of the Charles Simeon Trust, and the author of Expositional Preaching: How We Speak God’s Word Today (forthcoming from Crossway, April 2014). Joel Miles is the Director of Training at the Charles Simeon Trust and a pastoral resident at Holy Trinity Church.
 These correspondences for typology come from Walter Eichrodt, “Is Typological Exegesis an Appropriate Method?” in Claus Westermann (ed.), Essays on Old Testament Hermeneutics (trans. J.L. Mays; Richmond: John Knox, 1964), 224-225. The list is picked up by several others, including: G.K. Beale, Handbook on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament: Exegesis and Interpretation (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2012), 44; Peter J. Gentry and Stephen J. Wellum, Kingdom Through Covenant: A Biblical-Theological Understanding of the Covenants (Wheaton: Crossway, 2012), 103; and Sidney Greidanus, Preaching Christ from the Old Testament: A Contemporary Hermeneutical Method (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999), 254-255.
 Gerald Bray, “Allegory,” in Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible (ed., Kevin Vanhoozer; Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2005), 34.
 See Peter J. Gentry and Stephen J. Wellum, Kingdom Through Covenant: A Biblical-Theological Understanding of the Covenants (Wheaton: Crossway, 2012), 102-103.
 See James M. Hamilton Jr., What is Biblical Theology? (Wheaton: Crossway, 2014), 44.
My local church is in search of a worship leader. To that end, our senior pastor cobbled together a group of twelve members for a Worship Leader Search Committee. Despite my musical ineptitude, I was among those asked to serve.
I suppose I’m equal parts grateful and terrified. After all, the title “worship leader” is nowhere in the New Testament. This fact tempts even the most levelheaded toward the subjective and superficial, where already drawn lines and white-knuckled commitments merely evidence what we’ve previously seen, known, or been comfortable with.
So I wanted to pass along a few thoughts I’ve developed as I’ve prayed through what my church is undertaking in the coming weeks, and what your church may be going through right now. I’ve unoriginally titled them “Nine Marks of a Healthy Worship Leader.”
NINE MARKS OF A HEALTHY WORSHIP LEADER
I’m convinced these nine things are must-haves for anyone leading a congregation in song week after week. Far from exhaustive, they are a set of traits, postures, and characteristics I believe are informed by Scripture and ought to transcend culture and denomination.
1. Your worship leader should meet the biblical qualifications of an elder.
This is important. Even if he won’t be called an elder, the congregation will likely treat him like one. And it’s important to remember the qualifications for an elder/pastor/shepherd include being “apt to teach.” This is what worship leaders do, and their aptness to teach (or lack thereof) is evident every week in the songs they select and the way they facilitate the congregation’s worship.
I need to add a caveat here. Depending on what song-leading looks like in your particular congregation, meeting the qualifications of an elder may be unnecessary. A friend of mine helpfully pushed back on this point and offered a helpful distinction: “A person who is simply leading musically needs to have the biblical qualifications of a deacon/deaconess. A person who is leading that portion of the service which includes songs, prayers, and readings needs to have the qualifications of an elder.” I agree, under the assumption this second scenario naturally propels the “song leader” or what have you into a more pastoral function.
2. Your worship leader should be musically capable.
This is obvious, I know. Perhaps a more specific and helpful exhortation would be that he should select songs within his skill set. You really love that new riff on that old hymn? Yeah, me too, but it’s hard to sing along when I can’t decipher the words or melody as easily as I can the oh-boy-gotta-catch-up look in the drummer’s and rhythm guitarist’s eyes.
Also, it’s unwise to let this qualification steer the ship; in fact, it should be subservient to almost everything else. A godly and mediocre musician will serve our churches far better in the long run than a sublime talent who reads his chord charts more than his Bible.
3. Your worship leader should be invisible (almost).
A guest leaving the Sunday gathering should be more struck by the corporate witness of the congregation praising God in song than by the ability or presence of one man. “Whoa, those people love to sing about Jesus!” is always better than “Man, that guy is great!”
4. Your worship leader should be committed to gospel-anchored liturgy.
I’m using “liturgy” in a general sense, as in the “flow” of the gathering, not a rote, recited form of standing and sitting and singing that must be repeated weekly. Every church gathering follows some kind of liturgy; the question is whether it reflects the character of the God and the content of the gospel or just the “whatever strikes us” approach.
Anchoring liturgy in the gospel may mean scripted transitions between songs that help to move the congregation through the service. Scripture readings, prayers, testimonies of God’s grace tethered to the theme of the passage about to be preached—all of these till the hearts and minds of those present. Prayerful, thoughtful preparation beforehand cultivates an appropriately intentional culture in a church. Don’t assume the Holy Spirit only works “in the moment.”
5. Your worship leader should work in close tandem with the preacher.
The worship leader doesn’t make decisions on an island. Every song should be in service of the preached Word. This reminds the church of an important truth: the preacher is a worship leader, too. One worships God no less through hearing a sermon than through signing a song.
This isn’t to say the themes of the sermon and the songs must be identical in a narrow sense. But if, say, your pastor is preaching on the resurrection, sing songs which unpack the meaning of that event as opposed to songs that refer to God’s goodness in his general interactions with his people. The latter is a more-than-worthy topic, of course, but the resurrection is a specific event that reveals specific things about God and us. This kind of cooperation between song and sermon provides an opportunity to praise God specifically and uniquely in response to his revelation.
6. Your worship leader should be committed to the expression of a vast range of emotions.
Every Sunday gathering should have moments of adoration, thanksgiving, confession, celebration, and the like. The church should be a space where a range of emotions are acceptable: guilt, shame, sadness, joy, thankfulness, and so on. When we only sing upbeat songs about how happy we are to be in the house of the Lord, or how we’re going to serve our guts out this next week because Jesus is awesome, we tacitly teach people that feeling sad or guilty or downtrodden is somehow sub-Christian, a posture unfit for praising God.
There are many songs that extol Jesus while also being honest about feeling sorrow and pain. I’ll never forget singing “Be Still My Soul” a few days after hearing of a friend’s terminal cancer diagnosis. Though somber and designed to elicit emotions perhaps few present were feeling, this song hoisted me into the loving arms of Jesus. Can happy songs can do that, too? Of course. But when there’s never any seasoning of sorrow in our gatherings we risk broadcasting a counterfeit, sub-Christian message about what it means to be a human pursuing Christlikeness in a fallen world. We’re communicating to both our members and our visitors that Christians are always happy and that a relationship with Christ eradicates grief. We’re setting people up for disappointment or unpreparedness in the face of difficulty.
7. Your worship leader should be committed to the explicit worship of Jesus.
This is less about the tone and more about the words of certain songs. The vast majority of a church’s music must be distinctly Christian—exalting not only the characteristics of God but the truths of the gospel. We should sing few songs an unconverted Jew could happily sing—that is, we should sing about Jesus Christ’s life, death, and resurrection. Words like “sin” and “gospel” and “cross” should come up frequently and perhaps even be explained for those in attendance who, frankly, don’t know the difference between a Baptist church and a Jewish synagogue. Assuming all present are Christians and know what words mean is a recipe for confusion.
8. Your worship leader should encourage and enlist congregational participation.
In addition to encouraging loud congregational singing, the worship leader could also ask various church members to pray during the service. This provides opportunities for visibility and participation for many, not just the few with musical talent.
9. Your worship leader should be chiefly concerned with honoring God and upholding Jesus and the gospel, more than reaching the next generation or any other pre-determined demographic.
Every church needs to be culturally informed (this is why you likely avoid African tribal songs), but no church should be culturally driven. If conversations about fruitfulness begin displacing those about faithfulness, then the first step has been taken toward a mindset of man-centered worship that will need updating in a few short years.
Apart from Christ, every generation from the root of Adam is dead in their sins, in desperate need of the enlivening words of Christ. Because of this, after leaving your church on Sunday, no one needs to think to themselves, “Man, that music was great!” More than anything, they need to have heard the gospel clearly and explicitly; they need to be have been made aware of their dire situation apart from Christ and—even more—his held-out hand as their all-sufficient and ever-gracious Savior.
 The parlance for this kind of job is amorphous: music minister, pastor of music, pastor of music and arts, director of contemporary arena jamz and the occasional traditional dirge, defense against the dark arts teacher, etc. I’m only using “worship leader” since it seems to me a catch-all.
Note: An earlier version of this article was posted at the TGC Worship blog.
Alex Duke lives in Louisville, Kentucky with his wife Melanie. He is a student at Southern Seminary and a member of Hunsinger Lane Baptist Church. You can follow him on Twitter at @evanalexduke.
“How do I find the point of a biblical text?”
This is a question I often hear from small group Bible study leaders and student leaders in the church where I serve. And nothing would give me greater pleasure than telling them (and you) that I have a magic formula that will take them from their text directly to its point, or better yet, its application.
I don’t have that magic formula. I do, however, think there are a handful of things that you can try to find in your text, no matter where you are in the Bible, that will help you find the point.
1. STRUCTURE AND EMPHASIS
First, consider the passage’s structure and emphasis. I like to start with the structure, or how my passage breaks down into different sections of verses that work together.
Of course, how we find the structure will depend a bit on the type of text. If I am looking at a narrative, plot and characters are helpful. I will look for the setting, the climax, and the resolution. If I am looking at a speech or letter, I will look for a flow of ideas with a logical point. If I am looking at poetry, I will try to identify the different stanzas and begin to summarize them.
And no matter what section of the Bible I am in, I always, always, look for repeated words and ideas. A literal translation will help you here. The diagnostic question I like to use is: “How has the author organized this passage?” And once I have started to sketch out a structure, I ask myself what emphasis is being revealed by this structure.
Second, consider the context. No passage of the Bible exists alone. Rather, every text is part of an argument, story, or collection of passages that has purposefully been arranged by the author.
What comes before my passage and what comes after are important, and will help me to understand what is in my passage. It may help to realize the topic the author is addressing. It may help me to see a larger section in my book. It may provide a helpful correction to something I have been misreading in my passage. It may even help me to understand the historical situation of the first audience.
Context is key. And my diagnostic question is: “Why has the author put this passage here, at this point in the book?”
3. BOOK THEME
Given what I just mentioned about context, it only makes sense to zoom all the way out and ask about the book. What is the author’s agenda with this book?
Of course, it takes some work to really understand the theme of a whole book. Nevertheless, I think it is an important step to ask: “How does my passage—and particularly that emphasis I found in the structure—relate to this bigger theme of the whole book?”
In Luke 24:13-49, Jesus teaches that the whole of Scripture points to his death and resurrection, and the results of this gospel are repentance and forgiveness of sins. Without understanding this, we run the risk of interpreting a passage only moralistically or somehow separated from the gospel.
So, it is important to use all the tools of theology (especially biblical theology) to ask: “How does my passage relate to the gospel?” Of course, there are a lot of ways to do this badly. So, it is important that we make legitimate connections between our text and the gospel.
Once you’ve done your work in structure, context, book theme, and theology, it is time to start synthesizing. Whether you call this the main point, the theme of the passage, or the big idea, it is important to take this final step. The question I like to ask myself is this: “What is the author trying to teach his first audience?” What is he saying? What’s his main point?
Don’t kid yourself: this is not an easy process. For me, this represents an hour or two of preparation for a small group—and probably 12 hours of preparation for a sermon! But whatever time you have, I think it is helpful to work this way.
Of course, once you’ve discerned the main idea, you still need to think through application. Still, as far as working on the text, this is where I start:
- How has the author organized this passage?
- Why has the author put this passage here, at this point in the book?
- How does my passage relate to the theme of the whole book?
- How does my passage relate to the gospel?
- What is the author trying to teach his first audience?
For a little more on this process, see David Helm’s book Expositional Preaching: How We Speak God’s Word Today (Crossway, forthcoming April 2014).
Robert Kinney is University Minister at Holy Trinity Church and Director of Ministries at the Simeon Trust, a ministry for training preachers.
Put a cargo ship out on the high seas without any ballast and it will roll. It will simply go belly-up, that is, until it sinks. Worthy sea vessels get ballast by taking water into holding bins beneath the waterline. Once the compartments are filled, and the hatches are closed, the ship is ready for the open waters.
There is a lesson in this for preachers. Sometimes, the thing that keeps your preaching afloat is a discipline otherwise hidden. Good preachers have holding bins that lend weight to their words, ballast found beneath the surface. And that ballast is biblical theology.
In recent years, evangelicalism has seen a wave of resources produced in the area of biblical theology. This is a good thing, because the discipline of biblical theology is uniquely suited to teach us how the Bible progressively unfolds the redemption plan of God in Christ. That said, simply ending a sermon with Jesus does not mean that one is truly preaching Christ. Sidney Greidanus explains:
Preaching Christ [is] preaching sermons which authentically integrate the message of the text with the climax of God’s revelation in the person, work and or teaching of Jesus Christ as revealed in the New Testament.
To deliver Christ in a sermon requires authentic integration of the message of the text with the work of Christ. In other words, it requires ballast.
Our goal in this series of three posts is to introduce tools of biblical theology so that you might put some bulk in your preaching. In this first post we will discuss how plot and theme serve to make preachers Word-worthy vessels.
The Bible has a plotline. It tells one story through 66 books that, under the authorship of the Holy Spirit, all arrive at the same port: the person and work of Jesus Christ. This plot is not simply a literary device, but is an historical unfolding of the progressive revelation that culminates in Christ. According to Graeme Goldsworthy,
It is the nature of biblical revelation that it tells a story rather than sets out timeless principles in abstract. [The Bible] does contain many timeless principles, but not in abstract. They are given in an historical context of progressive revelation.
God did not choose to bring his Son into the world immediately after the fall. Rather, he chose to progressively reveal himself and his plan throughout human history. The result of revealing himself over time, and through the hard and happy history of Israel, was to ensure that when his Son did come we could recognize Jesus to be the fulfillment of all God was doing in history.
This means we can authentically integrate texts in the Bible with the message of Christ by rightly seeing their place in the plotline of the Bible. Texts are not springboards or foils to get to Christ.
Here are some questions that probe the amount of ballast you have in your preaching: How well do you know the plotline of the Bible? Where are its major turning points? Who are the significant characters and what role do they play? What are the different episodes, acts or epochs that show how the Bible’s story is divided?
These are vital and important questions for you to be able to answer. And, in the final post in this series, we will point to great resources for helping you.
As preachers begin to learn to read the Bible through the lens of an historical plotline, themes will emerge throughout, some of which will find their fulfillment in Jesus Christ. Defining a theme is not easy. But we find it helpful to think of themes in terms of established ideas or concepts that develop throughout the plotline. Themes are more than words that merely get repeated, though a repeated word can be helpful in summarizing a theme.
A good example of a theme is the temple. The temple represents the idea of God’s presence throughout the Bible, which finds its fulfillment in Christ, whose death opens up the way for us to be in the presence of God. The preacher with ballast will learn to handle this theme from places in the Old Testament that are not limited solely to where the word appears, or the ancient structure is mentioned. Rather, they will see the idea in places like the tabernacle or in the Garden of Eden.
A host of themes are present in the Bible, and all of them, rightly taken on, provide much-needed weight for our preaching. They include covenant (how God relates to his people), kingdom (how God orders and rules over his people), exodus (how God saves his people), exile (how God punishes his people), and many others. These all find their fulfillment in the person and work of Jesus Christ.
Preaching that is worthy of being out on the open waters is done by those who know the value of questions like: Are there any themes in my text this week that find fulfillment in Christ? Do I even know the major themes of the Bible? Can I show how these themes are developed and find their fulfillment in Christ?
In the next post we will look at two more tools that will add ballast to our preaching: typology and analogy.
 Sidney Greidanus, Preaching Christ from the Old Testament: A Contemporary Hermeneutical Method (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999), 10.
 Graeme Goldsworthy, Preaching the Whole Bible As Christian Scripture (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000), 22.
David Helm is one of the pastors of Holy Trinity Church in Chicago, Chairman of the Charles Simeon Trust, and the author of Expositional Preaching: How We Speak God’s Word Today (Forthcoming from Crossway, April 2014). Joel Miles is the Director of Training at the Charles Simeon Trust and a pastoral resident at Holy Trinity Church.
So, what exactly is the worship set? And should it be a given in our churches?
Simply put, the worship set is a consecutive group of deliberately chosen worship songs or hymns. It reflects forethought and creativity. It’s a far better option than picking a few popular songs and tossing them up on the canvas like a Jackson Pollock painting.
Similar to a meal with an appetizer, entrée, and dessert, the worship set follows a dynamic arc or storyline. A set might begin with a call to worship or song of invitation. This song sets a particular theme and invites worshipers to praise God. Next, a couple more songs develop the theme both musically and lyrically. This is the “entrée” portion. If the first song focused on the character of God, these selections might move the church to consider our sin and redemption in Christ. The final song of the set is the theological and musical climax. It could consist of a celebration of the resurrection, or a call to respond in faith and discipleship, or simply a declaration of praise. Bob Kauflin argues for this kind of deliberate thematic development in his book Worship Matters, and he outlines a number of helpful worship set frameworks to try.
On the whole, I think the worship set is a wonderful idea if it is used well. In a former church, serving as director of worship, I devoted substantial time each week to crafting and preparing sets of music. My hope was that this process would aid believers in responding to God in robust praise with their heads and their hearts, and I believe God blessed this effort.
The worship set can be a God-glorifying approach because deliberately shaping the order of songs aids in “the strengthening of the church” that is to characterize our corporate praise (1 Cor. 14:26). It unifies the songs around a central concept, which promotes understanding. If used well, the worship set prepares the congregation for the specific questions and priorities that the sermon will address. Like a narrative with a beginning, middle and end, a worship set can capture our imagination and help us engage with God through the implicit story being told in the sequence of songs.
THE WORSHIP SET: POTENTIAL PITFALLS AND SOLUTIONS
So I don’t want to declare that the worship set is a terrible concept altogether. But I do want to take that glass sculpture off grandma’s shelf and see if it can be improved.
Why? While the worship set has much to commend it, it’s not without dangers. Here are three potential pitfalls it presents. For each, I’ll identify some ways to think and move “beyond” the worship set.
1. The worship set can fragment the order of service.
First, the worship set can fragment the order of service. If pastors and other leaders aren’t careful, using a worship set can subtly convey that the worship service basically has two parts: the singing and the sermon. The worship leader presides over the first half, then passes the baton to the pastor for the message.
I fear that because of this, many evangelicals have a bifurcated picture of public worship: the music part of the service is geared at those who relate to God through emotional experiences, while the sermon exists to engage heady, left-brain types. At worst, this false dichotomy can also perpetuate the common misconception that worship through song is the church’s worship, leading to comments like, “The worship (read: music) today was incredible, but the sermon was a bit dry”—as if preaching is not doxology too.
However we structure our services, we must take pains to convey that both music and preaching (and other elements—see point 2) are properly “worship” to God, and that they’re essential for all Christians.
Here are some suggestions to circumvent this danger. First, if your services usually fall into the “30 minutes of music and 30 minutes of preaching” formula, then change up your order of service regularly. Consider breaking up the music set with prayer, Scripture reading, or silent reflection. Try occasionally placing the sermon closer to the beginning of the service and leaving most of the singing for after the message.
Have an individual other than the worship leader or preacher, preferably an elder, lead the whole service. Call this man a “host,” an “MC,” a “service leader” (that’s the term we use at my church), or whatever you like. But make sure he’s not the music leader or the preacher. If this individual gives the welcome and announcements, introduces the songs, presides over the offering, leads the prayers, and so on, then he can bring unity to the whole service.
Pick a theme for the service based on the theme of the sermon text. Ensure that the songs, prayers, and even the announcements relate to this theme. When the congregation realizes that the whole service is about “the faithfulness of God” or “knowing Christ in suffering,” it will mitigate against the feeling that the worship service is merely a concert followed by an unrelated talk.
2. The worship set can lead a church to undervalue non-musical worship elements.
Another danger of the worship set is that it can lead a church to undervalue non-musical worship elements. Paul told Timothy, “Devote yourself to the public reading of Scripture” (1 Tim. 4:13). He instructed the young pastor to lead his church in offering up “requests, prayers, intercession and thanksgiving” (1 Tim. 2:1). His expectation was that the members of the Corinthian church would set aside their offering “on the first day of every week” (1 Cor. 16:2), from which many have inferred that giving was an integral part of the New Testament church’s public worship. Jesus commanded his followers to baptize new disciples (Matt. 28:19), and he gave them his Supper so they could proclaim his death until he comes (1 Cor. 11:26). There’s a lot more to do in church than sing and preach.
The danger with the worship set is that these other elements of biblical worship can fade into the background. If the congregation expects (or even demands?) to experience a well-rehearsed, creative musical progression, that can force out these other mandated expressions of worship. Of course, I’m not suggesting that anyone intentionally sidelines biblical elements of worship. I only mean to highlight a pattern I’ve noticed: when a church privileges worship through song by giving it the lion’s share of time and focus, these other elements of worship tend to become thin and perfunctory.
How can pastors and those who lead worship through song work against this tendency?
If you use a worship set, resist the idea that the set must only contain music in order for it to have maximum impact. This isn’t a concert. Intersperse prayers and readings between the songs.
Promote a culture of worshipful, robust prayer in your services. If you devote substantial time to prayer during the public meeting, it shouldn’t be a surprise if your church members learn to prioritize prayer in their private lives.
How do we bolster our public prayers? By saturating them with scriptural truths: “Do we not learn the language of confession and penitence from the Bible? Do we not learn the promises of God to believe and claim in prayer from the Bible? Don’t we learn the will of God, the commands of God, and the desires of God for His people for which we are to plead in prayer, from the Bible? Since these things are so, public prayers should repeat and echo the language of the Bible throughout.”
There is also a correlation between rehearsal time and value. If your church values well-crafted music, it’s likely that your band or choir spend hours in rehearsal. Why not spend as much time and effort on preparing public prayers?
Finally, promote a culture of worshipful Scripture reading in your services. If we believe that the Word of God is “sharper than any double-edged sword” (Heb. 4:12) let’s take it out of the sheath and let it do its work. Read in such a way that the majestic truths of Scripture echo in the ears of your congregation. Consider training up a number of congregants to read Scripture well: with meaning, emphasis, gravity, and joy. We hand out Tim Challies’ excellent article on how to read Scripture publicly to everyone who reads at our church.
3. The worship set can foster an entertainment culture.
Third, the worship set can foster an entertainment culture. This danger is ironic, of course, because one of the purposes of the worship set is to unify a group of songs along the lines of theological content. But I fear that often, what the congregation experiences as they sing through a worship set is not a new appreciation for a biblical theme, but a concert-like journey through a stirring series of songs.
Although I’m not against creativity and emotion in public worship, I believe it is possible to so prioritize the emotional response that comes from music that biblical truth is overlooked rather than illuminated. One implication of Colossians 3:16 is that if the word of Christ does not dwell in us richly as we sing, then something about the way we’re singing needs to change.
As Neil Postman argued in Amusing Ourselves to Death, entertainment has become the dominant discourse of our age. While the church must recognize this fact, it shouldn’t capitulate to it. Our services don’t have to feel like a concert or TV show, even if those modes of discourse define the manner in which postmodern people experience the flow of ideas. Rather, we have the opportunity in our services to model a different type of discourse, one that begins with the self-revelation of God. Our worship—whether contemporary or traditional, high church or low—should eschew man-focused experientialism and embrace the transcendent God.
So, if a worship set can help people adore, treasure, and understand more of our holy Creator, then by all means use one. But if in your church the worship set tends to place more focus on the artistry of the band than on the awesomeness of the Redeemer, something needs to change.
How can we resist the way a worship set might slowly pull a church toward entertainment-ism?
Do all that you can to prioritize the congregation being able to hear one another sing. This is a basic biblical principle, given that Paul exhorts believers to speak “to one another” with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs (Eph. 5:19). But it also goes a long way in cultivating an atmosphere of joy and engagement with the lyrics.
Awareness of others in corporate worship, and of how the volume and expression of your own singing actually encourages others, helps to thwart self-centeredness. Practically, this may involve turning down the volume of the band or orchestra, and instructing the musicians to focus on tasteful, simple accompaniment rather than complex or virtuosic performing.
Provide a framework that helps to interpret the worship through song. For example, instead of beginning the service with dark lighting and a reverb-heavy guitar line (which feels a lot like a concert), begin with a call to worship from God’s Word or a brief prayer.
Before the music begins, have the service leader give a few words of instruction or exhortation to set the song(s) in context. This interpretation of what is about to come is invaluable not only for believers, but also for unbelievers who may not know what to make of the music they’re about to hear. (See 1 Corinthians 14:24 on the priority of making the service understandable to non-Christian visitors). Yes, it might feel a bit wooden and awkward to have a few remarks before the singing. But even this speed bump in the service is a good thing, because it engages the congregation’s minds and inhibits the passivity that an entertainment culture thrives on.
Also, keep the main lights turned up. Darkness, smoke machines, and spotlights all scream that the focus should be on musicians up front. In contrast, bright lighting and modest staging—even placing the musicians off to the side if possible—convey that what really matters here is not the choir or the worship team, but the content of the songs and the whole congregation’s participation.
See silence as a friend, not an enemy. If there are a few moments of quiet between a song and a prayer, or between the offering and the sermon, it’s not a disaster. After all, this is a gathering of Christians for praise, not a TV production. In fact, allowing silent space in transitions can refresh people’s mental palates and allow the church to reflect on what has come before in the service. In addition, use planned moments of silence for reflection and prayer. Sitting in a room with dozens or hundreds of other believers and simply being quiet before the Lord is bracingly countercultural in our noisy, distracted age.
MORE TOOLS IN THE TOOLBOX
In all of this, I’m not trying to make the worship set a bogeyman. It’s a useful tool. But for these three reasons, I don’t think it should be the only tool in our toolbox. And if we do use a worship set, we should do so in a way that unifies rather than divides the order of service, that highlights rather than downplays other elements of worship, and that promotes awe before God rather than an entertainment experience.
When it comes to planning a worship service, there is much freedom with regard to the forms and circumstances in which a congregation reads the Word, sings the Word, prays the Word, hears the Word preached, and sees the Word in the ordinances. I pray that as pastors and music directors think beyond the worship set, God would give us wisdom to lead our congregations in offering him an appropriate sacrifice of praise. I pray that our churches, filled by God’s Spirit, would increasingly delight in God’s Son, the one who gave himself for us that we might be worshipers of him.
Matt Merker is a pastoral assistant at Capitol Hill Baptist Church, where his responsibilities include music and service preparation. You can find congregational worship songs he has composed at www.capitolhillbaptist.org/
 Bob Kauflin, Worship Matters: Leading Others to Encounter the Greatness of God (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 2008), 114.
 Terry Johnson, Reformed Worship: Worship That Is according to Scripture (Greenville, SC: Reformed Academic Press, 2000), 35.
All this month, Logos is giving away electronic copies of Biblical Theology in the Life of the Church by Michael Lawrence.
If you haven't read the book, this is a great chance to do so. One of the unique things about the book is that it describes the hermeneutical tools for biblical theology, models how to do biblical theology, and sketches how biblical theology works out in pastoral ministry.
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I assume it’s a foregone conclusion among many—maybe most?—evangelical Christians that the greatest love in all the universe is God’s unconditional love.
And it’s not just evangelicals, but Americans generally. Just last Sunday the preacher pulled out these Katy Perry lyrics:
I will love you unconditionally,
There is no fear now,
Come just as you are to me.
Don't need apologies,
Know that you are worthy,
Let go and just be free.
Acceptance is the key to be truly free
Will you do the same for me?
Love is acceptance without conditions. To put conditions on a person is not loving. It’s imposing yourself, which is selfishness, the opposite of love. So if you love someone, you set them free. Or so said another rock star of an older era.
Hopefully it’s obvious to most readers that Perry’s not exalting the Christian life here, but something very different.
Which leads me to my main point: at the very center of the universe, and the greatest love in the universe, is the divine Father’s conditional love for the divine Son. And that should give us hope.
Does that sound crazy? Listen to the divine Father:
“This is my beloved Son. With him I am well pleased” (Matt. 17:5).
The Father was pleased with the Son, and so he loved him. The Father looked down at the Son, and he saw someone who was not like Adam, or Israel, or any human who ever lived. He was perfect in every way. He was utterly, ineffably, divinely pleasing. He was altogether lovely.
John Piper put it like this: the Father “beheld the panorama of his own perfections in the face of his Son” (Pleasures of God, 28-29).
You may have beheld a woman’s face or a man’s face and thought it exquisite. But beholding the Son’s face, the Creator of all beautiful faces found himself beholding the very standard of beauty, righteousness, justice, goodness, and perfection. For he found himself beholding himself. And so he was attracted to such perfection. He loved it because it was perfect. His love was conditioned on this perfection.
Therefore the Father exalted the Son above his companions. He didn’t exalt the Son indiscriminately, randomly, unconditionally. He exalted him because he was altogether lovely.
“You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions” (Heb. 1:9; citing Ps. 45:7).
Did you catch the therefore? The Son loved righteousness. Therefore the Father exalted him.
I wonder if all this sounds vain and horrible and backwards to you.
Well, stop and think. If it turns out that everything the Bible says is true about God’s mercy and goodness and generosity, the fact that the Father conditionally loves the Son because the Son is perfect means he will want others to share the Son’s perfection. He will want to remake the universe for the display of the glory of his Son. He will want to fashion billions of creatures to image the Son. He will, that is to say, want to make us perfect and just and righteous and good like his most good Son.
The fact that the Father conditionally loves the Son means there will be an end to injustice and unrighteousness in the universe. It means there is a glorious standard toward which this universe is careening and will be conformed.
It means Christians should stop preaching Easy Believism and Jesus-as-Savior-but-Not-Lord.
Rather, Christians should preach that God loves us contra-conditionally, as David Powlison has put it. He loves us contrary to what we deserve because he’s gracious and merciful. And then he loves us by calling us to repent. To be born again. To follow the Son by putting on the image of the Son.
And so my own church’s statement of faith teaches, “Justification includes the pardon of sin, and the promise of eternal life on principles of righteousness.”
What principles of righteousness are those? They’re the principles that say I need to be righteous for God to love me. But I’ve not been righteous. The good news is, Jesus was perfectly righteous. And through faith his righteousness is granted to me. Now, the Father loves sinners like you and me, Christian—get this!—as if our faces shone forth with all the beauty, righteousness, justice, goodness, and perfection of the Son.
And so the Father says to us, “With you I am well pleased.”
You can follow me @JonathanDLeeman.
Of all the things I have written, my little essay, “What Can Miserable Christians Sing?” has provided me with so many delightful surprises over the years. I wrote it in about 45 minutes one afternoon, infuriated by some superficial comment about worship I had heard but which I have long since forgotten. And yet this little piece which took minimal time and energy to author has garnered more positive responses and more touching correspondence than anything else I have ever written. It resonated with people across the Christian spectrum, people from all different church backgrounds who had one thing in common: the understanding that life has a sad, melancholy, painful dimension which is too often ignored and sometimes even denied in our churches.
The article was intended to highlight what I saw as a major deficiency in Christian worship, a deficiency that is evident in both traditional and contemporary approaches: the absence of the language of lament. The Psalms, the Bible’s own hymnbook, contains many notes of lamentation, reflecting the nature of the believer’s life in a fallen world. And yet these cries of pain are on the whole absent from hymns and praise songs. The question that formed the article’s title was thus a genuine one: what is it in the hymnody of your church that can be sung honestly by the woman who has just lost her baby, the husband who has just lost his wife, the child who has just lost a parent, when they come to church on Sunday? The answer, I suggested, was the Psalms, for in them one finds divinely inspired words which allow the believer to express their deepest pains and sorrows to God.
Would I write it differently today? Not in terms of substance. If anything, I would broaden its application since I believe that its message is more important now than it was at the time of composition. As I survey the contemporary church landscape, I am struck at how even the great gospel of sovereign grace is now so often focused on the youth market and consequently packaged with the aesthetics of worldly power, of celebrity, of the kind of superficial approaches to life which mark the childish and the immature. Things that were once (and sadly no more) the exclusive preserve of the proponents of the prosperity gospel now feature in mainstream evangelical circles without comment or criticism. The world has truly been turned upside down when Calvinism has in some quarters become known for its pyrotechnics and its cocksure swagger.
I am also more aware now than I was when I wrote it of how real mortality is and of how short life can be. I wrote the piece with others in mind; now I am older and only too aware of how it applies to me and to those I love. The older one is, the more one is acquainted with the loss of friends and family, and the more one’s own mortality feels like a constant and unwelcome dinner guest. As a father I rejoiced the first time my son beat me in a running race; but my delight in his growing strength was short-lived when in the coming months and years I realized it was also indicative of my own decline.
The world tells us to defy this as long as we can, whether by fitness, fashion choices or even surgery. But the world is a malevolently plausible confidence trickster who tells us what we want to hear. Weakness and then death ultimately come to us all; and it is the pastor’s task to prepare both himself and his people for the inevitable. Thus, I now believe it is more important than ever that the church embrace weakness and tragedy in its worship. True, we look forward to the resurrection; but we often forget that the pathway to resurrection is necessarily and unavoidably through death. We need to remind our people in both what we preach, what we pray, and what we sing as a congregation that God’s strength is made perfect in our weakness—and, where resurrection is concerned, in and through our total weakness at the hands of death.
Since writing the original piece, I have also become more aware of the power of liturgy to shape the mind of a Christian congregation. I am not talking here only of formal liturgies such as those in The Book of Common Prayer. I mean the form and content of any worship service claiming to be Christian. That which we say and sing as a congregation will over time subtly and imperceptibly inform our thinking about the Christian faith and thus about life in general in a powerful way. That is why an emphasis on the aesthetics of power and youth—perhaps we might say liturgies of power and youth—are problematic. They exclude the old or delude them into thinking that they are not old; and they deceive the young into thinking that they are the center of the universe and are destined to live forever. A liturgy which accurately reflects the expectations we can have for life in a fallen world, one that inculcates and reinforces that week by week, is important as a means of preparing our people for the suffering that must eventually come their way.
And that brings me once more to the psalms. True, there are Christian poets and even the occasional hymn writer who have captured the dark complexities of life; but there are none to compare with authors of the Psalter who set forth the riches and depths of human experience and existence with perfect poetic pitch. The church which makes the psalms part of her regular diet provides her people with the resources for truly living in this vale of tears, just as the church which does not do so has perversely denied her people a true treasure in pursuit of what? Relevance? There is nothing more universally relevant than preparing people for suffering and death. I have people in my congregation who have very hard lives, lives that are not going to become easier over time. To them I can only say: suffering comes to us all, but there is a resurrection; listen to how the notes of real, present lament in the Psalms are suffused with tangible, future hope and be encouraged: weeping may tarry for the night, and indeed be truly painful while it does, but joy will come in the morning.
When I married a young couple in my congregation a few years ago, I commented in the sermon that all human marriages begin with joy but end in tragedy. Whether it is divorce or death, the human bond of love is eventually torn apart. The marriage of Christ and his church, however, begins with tragedy and ends with a joyful and loving union which will never be rent asunder. There is joy to which we point in our worship, the joy of the Lamb’s wedding feast. But our people need to know that in this world there will be mourning. Not worldly mourning with no hope. But real mourning nonetheless, and we must make them ready for that.
Still, as I look back to the original “Miserable Christians” piece, I never imagined I would still be commenting on it so many years later. I am grateful that it seems to have been a help and encouragement to so many.
Carl Trueman is Paul Woolley Professor of Church History at Westminster Theological Seminary, and the pastor of Cornerstone Presbyterian Church in Ambler, Pennsylvania.
 “What Can Miserable Christians Sing?” in The Wages Of Spin: Critical Writings on Historical and Contemporary Evangelicalism (Christian Focus, 2005), 157-63.
Repentant Christians grieve sin. They remember times of iniquity. A place, person or conversation can trigger these memories.
Driving to visit my parents, I pass a house where, as a teenager, I gathered with other teens to engage in sin.
Or, my Facebook feed updates me about a guy that I bullied in high school.
Or, my daughter remarked when learning the fifth commandment, “Dad, you’ve always honored your mother and father, haven’t you?” Yeah, right.
All these things, when I stop to consider them, cause grief.
Surely, the Christian life is filled with the joy of forgiven sin. Yet that joy can only grow out of the soil of sadness, a sadness that results from reflecting on our betrayals of God and others, present and past.
If you are a pastor, one of your jobs is to teach and lead your congregation in grieving sin. Do you?
GRIEVING IN SCRIPTURE
We grieve sin because God grieves sin. The Prophets are filled with the Father’s groans over his people’s sin. Isaiah tells us the Holy Spirit grieves sin (Is 63.10; also, Eph. 4.30). The Son came to bear humanities grief: “Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrow” (Is. 53:4). And we see him weeping over Lazarus’ death and grieving the sins of Jerusalem.
We also watch Peter grieve his own denial of Christ. The third time Jesus asked Peter if he loved Jesus, the Scripture says, “Peter was grieved …” (see John 21:15-19). The trigger for Peter was the third request of his love. It reminded him of his three denials.
Yet grief in Scripture is not just an individual activity, it’s a corporate activity, led by church leaders. Peter preached the first gospel message with an aim of producing grief over sin. He accuses them of crucifying and killing Jesus (Acts 2.23, 36). Their response? “They were cut to the heart…and said, ‘Brothers, what shall we do?’” (v. 37). They experienced grief of sin, which produced repentance (v. 38).
Paul, too, observes that one of his letters caused the Corinthians to grieve. And he rejoices because it led to repentance: “I rejoice, not because you were grieved, but because you were grieved into repenting. For you felt a godly grief…for godly grief produces a repentance that leads to salvation (2 Cor. 7.9-10).”
This text is not directed to an individual. It points to corporate sin and corporate grief. The Greek text uses the plural pronoun “you” over and over in this passage. (See Judg. 10.10ff, 1 Sam. 7.6; Neh. 1, and Dan. 9 for other instances of corporate confession.)
And notice, godly grief produces repentance, which leads to salvation.
LEADING YOUR CHURCH THROUGH GRIEF
It is appropriate, therefore, for us to include opportunities to grieve, confess and repent sin in our church’s corporate gathering. Unless miserable sinners are brought to grief, they will not experience relief.
Here are a few suggestions to help our congregation grieve sin in our worship services.
1. Grieving Sin through Corporate Prayer
Dedicate an entire prayer to confessing sin. The pastor or another trusted leader should lead the congregation through this prayer. Nehemiah 1 and Daniel 9 are excellent examples (Mark Dever often begins his prayers by reading a slightly amended version of Daniel 9:18-19). Both Nehemiah and Daniel grieve the sin of Israel and confess this sin to God on behalf of Israel.
Some ideas for executing this include: praying a Scripture that confesses sin such as Psalm 106.6 or Ephesians 2.4, using another’s prayer such as a Puritan prayer from the Valley of Vision, or writing your own prayer.
2. Grieving Sin at the Lord’s Table
A natural place to grieve sin is during the Lord’s Table. There we remember that Christ drank the full cup of God’s wrath against sin on our behalf (Ps. 75.8; Matt. 20.22, 26.39).
Whoever facilitates the Lord’s Supper should work in time for God’s people to reflect, grieve and confess sin. Paul explicitly instructs us to examine ourselves (1 Cor. 11.27-28).
One could simply recite this confession from the Book of Common Prayer:
Almighty and most merciful Father, we have erred and strayed from Your ways like lost sheep…We have left undone those things which we ought to have done; and we have done those things which we ought not to have done…we acknowledge with great sorrow our many sins which we, from time to time, have committed by thought, word and deed, against Your divine majesty, provoking most justly Your wrath against us. But, O Lord, have mercy upon us. Spare all who confess their faults and truly repent; according to Your promises declared in Christ Jesus our Lord. We do earnestly repent, and are heartily sorry for our wrongs; remembering them now grieves us…Forgive us all that is past.
Recall that the Lord’s Supper is not only a gospel celebration but also a participatory sacrifice of service and devotion to the body (1 Cor. 10.14-22, 11.26).
3. Grieving Sin through a Hymn or Song
Many churches only use hymns and songs for praise. But the Bible calls for songs of lamentation, too (see Carl Trueman’s essay, “What Do Miserable Christians Sing?”)
God instructs Moses to teach Israel a song that laments sin, stands as a witness against sin, and reminds them of their salvation (see Deut. 31.19-22). Try reading this song. You will be struck by Israel’s grievous sin and how this song is structured to cause Israel to grieve sin.
The Psalms, too, offer examples of lamenting sin.
Gratefully, many hymns and more and more contemporary songs include both confession and praise. Bob Kauflin and Keith and Kristyn Getty are modern day hymn writers that intentionally bring the church through the gospel starting with grief of sin. Visit WorshipMatters.com and GettyMusic.com to find songs that incorporate these elements of worship.
Joey Cochran, a graduate of Dallas Seminary, is a church planting intern at Redeemer Fellowship in St. Charles, Illinois under the supervision of Pastor Joe Thorn. Follow him at jtcochran.com or @joeycochran.